Wireless we have some proposed solution. 1. High Energy

Wireless sensor network are on the
top in market, wireless sensor users grow per annum. Wireless sensors are made
up to very tiny chips which are capable of commutating with each other or
gather data by sensing. Wireless sensor network can be deployed randomly or
planted. Wireless sensor network are very useful but it also have some
limitation E.g. Wireless sensors have very limited energy once the battery is
dead then it cannot be rechargeable so to solve this issue many researchers
have done work on this issue and proposed some methodology and once the network
is established then further nodes cannot be added to that network.Wireless sensors have nodes which
are deployed in the field while all the data were send to the Base-Station (BS)
by these nodes.Once the nodes are deployed in the field
then they transmit their location and residual to the base station and
Base-station make an clusters and then the cluster head (CH) is selected by the
BS.The Node sense data and send it to
the respective Cluster head and further these cluster head send this data to
the base station.All in this process the node are
active and energies are used and as we already discuss those nodes have very
limited energy and cannot be replaceable.To take care of this problem we
have some proposed solution.  1.   
High Energy
Nodes:

 In Addition Small number of high energy nodes
are added which sends the residual energy and location to the BS of respected
node while these nodes cannot participate in sensing the nodes goes to sleep
mode and after completing the round these nodes were active and send energy and
location e nodes.  M=Message send by each node R=no of nodes 1.   
I-ECBR:i-ECBR is
divided into two main phases. ·      
Firstly, i-ECBR performs nodes
clustering and·      
 secondly optimal paths are constructed for
robust routingWe
have nodes (n no. of nodes) which are randomly deployed in the field at the
start each sensor node currier its location and energy to the base station by
its adjacent nodes based on the optimal number of clusters (p) and then the Bs
divide the entire network work with identical size partitions.Z=n*p                                      (1)Nodes
which are more closer to each other make an cluster having unique ID.

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After
the formation of equal clusters then the CH election is announced and those
nodes is participate which were high energy only participate in the election.Those
node which have high energy and near to Centerior is elected as CH and then it
broadcast the ADV message to all these respective nodes and clusters. The
entire cluster has their TDMA in which CH collect the sensory data from nodes
and send to the BS.After
this the intermediate nodes are elected to create the routing path. Those who
have less hops counts send data.

in addition when the nodes reached to his threshold value and the data
are send by this path the node show a error to the sender then message goes
from another rout path by this the energy is saved.1.   
2D Elliptical Gaussian Distribution Function

This method has great influence on the energy balancing
and enhancing the network life time because the standard deviation had a great
influence on the energy and network life timea0,b0 will be equal to
zero. While each sensor node has an specific area to continue sensing and can
communicate directly to the base station if the node has high energy1.   
Modified TDMAStep 1. Each cluster
head computes the number of sensor nodes assigned to its cluster based on the
number of receiving requests.Step 2. Each cluster
head will broadcast a message includes the number of its own nodes attached to
the entire cluster heads in the WSN. At this end, each cluster head knows the
capacity of the largest cluster.Step 3. The capacity
of the largest cluster is selected to be the implemented duration of the TDMA
schedule in all clusters for steady state phase.Step 4. Each sensor
node within each cluster has a chance to transmit data according to modified
TDMA in steady state phase. So, All nodes will send the same amount of data to their
cluster heads. Thus, All nodes will drain the same amount of energy. Clusters
that contain a small number of nodes after sending their amount of data for the
current steady state phase, they go into the sleep mode during the

remaining time of
steady state phase. It’s also avoiding that nodes go into an idle listening
mode that affects on the node’s energy level.1.   
Cluster
architectures: network is organized as clusters where
each cluster is has a cluster head (CH) that takes the responsibility of
coordinating the communication activities of members. CHs communicates with
another·       CHs or to the base station.
Clustering techniques enhance energy efficiency by limiting energy consumption
of the nodes. Network scalability is also improved by the hierarchical
structures in the network.·       _
Energy as a
routing metric: the setup path phase considers energy as
a metric. By doing so, routing algorithms can select the next hop by focusing
not only the shortest paths but also on its residual energy.·       _
Multipath routing:
single path routing rapidly drains energy of nodes on a selected path and when
the node drains out of power, a new route must be reconstructed. Multipath
routing in contrast, alternates forwarding nodes thereby balancing energy among
the nodes. It enables the network to recover faster from failure and enhances
the network reliability.·       _
Relay node
placement: the early stage depletion of nodes can be
avoided by the even distribution of nodes by placing a few relay nodes. This
improves the energy equilibrium between nodes, coverage, and capacity and avoids
sensor hot spots.·       _
Sink mobility:
a huge workload is concentrated on the nodes closer to the sink (base station)
since all the traffic is directed towards the sink through them. Hence their
battery gets depleted faster than other sensor nodes. The load can be balanced
by allowing a mobile base station which collects node information by moving in
the network. Sink mobility improves connectivity, reliability and reduces
collision, contention and message loss. 

    

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