Who are the Human Traffickers? Human Traffickers are the source of various forms of human trafficking. You are their prey. They are your predator. They use tactics like to control their victims by using force, fraud or psychological coercion(Ellerman and Chon, 2011). Human traffickers role is to recruit, harbor, obtain and exploit victims (Ellerman and Chon, 2011). They are hiding within their own shadows. A Human Trafficker can be your next-door neighbor, your best friend, or even your family members. This paints the picture that Human Traffickers are deceitful. They employ a variety of strategies to attract their victims by promising false opportunities like a high paying job, a loving relationship or fun activities(Ellerman and Chon, 2011); handing them the perfect opportunity to catch their victims. This is one common way how victims give into human trafficking. In other cases, they may kidnap victims or use physical violence or substance abuse to control them(Ellerman and Chon, 2011). In order to control manipulate and control their victims, their control tactics include: physical and emotional abuse, sexual assault confiscation of identification and money, isolation from friends and family, and even renaming victims(Ellerman and Chon, 2011). Traffickers will identify and leverage their victims’ vulnerabilities in order to create dependency(Ellerman and Chon, 2017), meaning traffickers would take advantage of their vulnerabilities. For example, In cases where the children have few to no positive male role models in their lives, the traffickers take advantage of this fact and in many cases, demand that the victims refer to them as “daddy,” making it tougher for the youths to break the hold the perpetrator has on them(Rodriguez and hill, 2011); because creating an emotional attachment to their traffickers will make it even difficult for younger victims to leave. They will make promises aimed at addressing the needs of their target in order to impose control. As a result, victims become trapped and fear leaving for myriad reasons, including psychological trauma, shame, emotional attachment, or physical threats to themselves or their children’s safety(Ellerman and Chon, 2017). Traffickers may vary from pimps, gang members, business owners and etcetera. The Victims The prey. Their main role to be exploited and taken advantage of. As well as human traffickers, victims can be anyone. They can range from: men, women, adults, children, foreign nationals or U.S citizens(Ellerman and Chon, 2017). While they share the trait of vulnerability, victims have diverse ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds, varied levels of education, and may be documented or undocumented(v, 2017). Under U.S law, victims of human trafficking are divided into three populations: First, Children under age 18 induced into commercial sex, secondly, adults aged 18 or over induced into commercial sex through force, fraud, or coercion and Children and third, adults induced to perform labor or services through force, fraud, or coercion(Ellerman and Chon, 2017). In other words, human trafficking does not discriminate. Although human trafficking span all demographics, There are even some circumstances or vulnerabilities that lead to a higher susceptibility to victimization and human trafficking (Ellerman and Chon, 2017), meaning some characteristics you have will make you more prone to human trafficking. For example: runaway and homeless youth, as well as victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, war or conflict, or social discrimination are more targeted by human traffickers(Ellerman and Chon, 2017). Foreign nationals on the other hand, who have paid significant recruitment and travel fees often become highly indebted to traffickers or other intermediaries(Ellerman and Chon, 2017). Traffickers manipulate their victims by leveraging the non-portability of many work visas as well as the victims’ lack of familiarity with surroundings, laws and rights, language fluency, and cultural understanding(Ellerman and Chon, 2017). Victims may face difficulty accessing help because traffickers have their own ways to keep themselves including their work hidden. Their traffickers may confiscate their identification documents and money, they may not speak English, they may not know where they are because they have been moved frequently and are often not allowed to communicate with family or friends(Ellerman and Chon, 2017). Most of the time they may have trouble trusting others, due to their traffickers’ manipulation and control tactics(Ellerman and Chon, 2017).Types of human TraffickingSex Trafficking: Sexual exploitation is common form of human trafficking globally including throughout the U.S. Sex traffickers use violence, threats, lies, debt bondage and other forms of coercion to compel adults and children to perform commercial sex acts against their will(Ellerman and Chon, 2017). Under U.S law, anyone under the age of 18 forced into commercial sex or the sexual exploitation of a child is victim of sex trafficking regardless(Ellerman and Chon, 2017). In fact, victims of sex slavery are predominantly women; women and girls make up 98% of the sexual exploitation in the private economy. Victims circumstances’ may vary. Many victims become romantically involved with someone who manipulates the into sexual exploitation, lured by false promises of a job and some are forced to sell sex by their parents or relatives(Ellerman and Chon, 2017). Trafficking situations may range from days, weeks to even years. Common Sex Trafficking occurrences includes hotels and motels, fake massage businesses, on the streets, truck stops and etcetera(Ellerman and Chon, 2017). The more vulnerable you are, the more susceptible you are to sex slavery. According to Polaris there are 4.5 million that are trapped in sexual exploitation globally; polaris has also gotten 22,191 reports inside the United States(Ellerman and Chon, 2017). It is estimated that 1 in 6 endangered reported to them were likely sex trafficked victims (Ellerman and Chon, 2017). Sex trafficking is a criminal industry based on demand and the consumers(men) make those demands.Labor Trafficking: Labor Trafficking is also a common form of modern day slavery in which the victims engage of labor acts through force fraud or coercion for various industries. Labor traffickers include recruiter, contractors, employers and others(Ellerman and Chon, 2017). Labor traffickers often use false promises of a high-paying job, travel opportunities or exciting education to lure people into horrendous working conditions(Ellerman and Chon, 2017). Victims are to frequently work long hours and paid little to no money. For control, their employers exert physical and psychological manipulation such as: debt bondage, confiscation of money and physical abuse to the point that victims will believe they have no other choice to keep working.(Ellerman and Chon, 2017) Traffickers will often use fear, prejudice, and control to overpower their victims. There are also different factors labor traffickers look for . For instance: immigration status, recruitment debt, isolation and etcetera(Ellerman and Chon, 2017). If you possess one or more of these qualities you are more likely to be vulnerable to human trafficking. Victims may range from women, men, children, and LGBTQ individuals(Ellerman and Chon, 2017). Frequent types of labor trafficking include: being forced to work in homes as domestic servants, farm workers coerced through violence as they harvest crops or factory workers working in inhumane conditions(Ellerman and Chon, 2017). Labor trafficking has also been reported door to door crew slaves, restaurants, construction work ad etcetera(Ellerman and Chon, 2017). According to statistics, the international labor organization has estimated there are 14.2 million people trapped in forced labor in industries including: agriculture, construction, domestic work and manufacturing(Ellerman and Chon, 2017). Labor trafficking is much more common than you think.Child labor and Commercial sex: Child labor is the same as labor trafficking, the same goes for commercial sex and sex trafficking, but with children or those under the age of eighteen. Both go hand in hand in human trafficking because both share common characteristics of human trafficking. For example both victims get take advantage of and both are a form of child trafficking.It’s unrecognizable in some countries. In fact, There are different companies that still use child labor such as: Walmart. CNA Finance, Victoria’s Secret. Oglobo snfGAP. Dallas News(Lamanique, 2016). Commercial sex on the other hand, involves prostitution or pornography. About 2 million children are exploited every year in the global commercial sex trade; Women and girls make up 96% of victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation(Hut and Mohammed, 2017).The UN and Human Trafficking The United Nations “Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime” definition of human trafficking is “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation( Parrenas, 2012). Parrenas points out that human trafficking is more than smuggling and migration. In short, the defining traits of trafficking are, first, the transportation of a person; second, force, fraud, or coercion; and, finally, exploitation( Parrenas, 2012). There’s a major difference between these definitions. By the second definition, consent is irrelevant. In contrast the first definition implies that human trafficking accounts for consent. “As such, a smuggled person would fall under the broader category of “migrant,” as migration generally refers to the voluntary movement of individuals. Yet, like human trafficking, migration does not necessarily involve the crossing of national borders, as smuggling does.” says Rachel Parrenas.”Despite the clarifications, The UN’s definition of human trafficking remains quite broad”. Specifically, the UN’s definition is utterly flawed based the UN protocol against the smuggling of migrants. Rachel Parranes consults with the topic of human trafficking in our twenty first century today. If you’re interested you should read Panera’s “What Is Human Trafficking? A Review Essay.” She talks more about the UN(United Nations) and human trafficking. Do you agree with Rachel Panerras?Human Trafficking rumors: DebunkedAs you learn more about human trafficking, you may come across some false rumors that needs to be debunked and David A Feingold helps us debunk these rumors by giving us a preview of what the world of human trafficking looks like.More victims are trafficked in the sex trafficking industry “No, the trafficking of women and children for prostitution is a vile heinous violation of human rights.” David A feingold explains. “But labor trafficking is probably more widespread.” According to Feingold, evidence relies in the field studies of trafficked victims worldwide; the labor market is far greater than sex market. Feingold discusses how the statistics “enduse” of trafficked people are often unreliable because they tend to over represent the sex trade(Feingold, 2005). Men are excluded from trafficking statistics gathered in Thailand because according to national law, men cannot qualify as trafficking victims(Feingold, 2005). In other words, Men were excluded from trafficking statistics making it seem like women were sex trafficked more.Trafficking victims should be sent home False. Sending victims back may put them in the same position that endangered them in the first place, particularly in situations of armed or political unrest(Feingold, 2005). If criminal gangs were involved in trafficking, they will likely threatened victims in their families(Feingold, 2005). Even worse, some people may have no home to return to(Feingold, 2005). Instead of sending victims home, it’s important to make sure they have a safe place to return to first off and to take care of the victims to make sure they won’t be in the same condition again. Lack of legal status is a major risk factor to trafficking, impending and often precluding victims’ return and reintegration(Feingold, 2005). This is particularly true for minorities, indigenous people and migrants who can’t prove their nationality(Feingold, 2005).Trafficking is a big business controlled by organized crimeYes, trafficking is a business but this is false. Many regions of world such as southeast asia like southeast asia trafficking mostly involves “disorganized crime”: individuals or small groups linked on an an ad hoc business(Feingold, 2005). They have no standard profile of traffickers. Why? because human traffickers vary. They range from truck drivers, laborer to police officers(Feingold, 2005).Human Trafficking around the worldRussiaRussia, the biggest country in the world is home to five to twelve million migrants working in harsh conditions according to Robert Grimmick. From underground garment factories, being public transport drivers, to working in construction and agriculture. Women and children are also forced into prostitution as well(Grimmick, 2017) “How it usually works in Russia is that wages are withheld, or come extremely late. This makes the migrants incur a debt that is impossible to get out of. Employers will also take away migrant workers’ passports, so they can’t leave.” Robert Grimmick explains. He points that the corruption of the Russian government is one reason why trafficking is a such a problem. There are allegations that Russian officials facilitate the entry of migrants into the country for exploitation, and other officials receive bribes to not investigate human trafficking crimes(GRIMMINCK , 2017). Even worse, the russian government is involved with human trafficking. ” North Korea deploys workers to other countries for slave labor. One of those countries that “lease” North Korean slaves is Russia. In a state-to-state agreement, 20,000 North Korean workers every year are sent to Russia to work in different industries, especially logging.”(GRIMMINCK , 2017)North KoreaNorth Korea, a country located in east asia on the northern half of the korean peninsula, run by dictator Kim Jong Un is involved human trafficking as well. This is because it’s an almost exclusively a source country for people to be trafficked out of is because of how terrible the conditions are in the country, which includes forced labor camps that house 80,000 to 120,000 people(GRIMMINCK , 2017). LibyaLibya is a country controlled by a dictator as well and a magnet for human traffickers because of its position between Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa, and Gaddafi’s regime profited from trafficking(Grimminick, 2017) In fact, recently there’s a recent slave auction of migrants and refugees in Libya which are being bought by smugglers. They use aggression and physical violence in order to keep their slaves in control. “like many other countries on this list, men are forced to become laborers, women and girls are forced into the sex trade, and boys are recruited by militia groups. Unfortunately, until Libya starts to get some stability, their nightmarish human trafficking problem will only get worse.”(Grimminck, 2017)United States of America”Imagine at the age of 16 being sex-trafficked by a pimp named “cut-throat.” After days of being repeatedly drugged and raped by different men you were purchased by a 43 year old child predator who took you to his home to use you for sex. You end up finding enough courage to fight back and shoot and kill him,”(anonymous) posted by pop singer Rihanna. Thought human trafficking only happens in third world country? Wrong! Cyntoia brown’s story has been rambling around social media. More celebrities like Kim Kardashian are recognizing her by paying lawyers to free Cyntoia Brown, spawning the viral hashtag #FreeCyntoaBrown. Between 14,500 and 17,500 people are trafficked into the U.S. each year. Conclusion: Join the fightWhy should we care about this problem? Can I take a stand against Human Trafficking? We care about this problem because everyday more and more people are becoming victims of human trafficking as we speak. The next victim can be you, your family or someone you love and care about. There are many creative ways to take a stand against human trafficking. You can do little things like raising awareness or educating yourself about modern-day slavery. You can even start your organization or club and participate in the polaris project or the nonprofit organization that works to combat and prevent modern-day slavery and human trafficking. Your stand against human trafficking can make a huge difference in our world. That’s why you should join the fight. To come to a conclusion, human trafficking can happen to anyone and anywhere. From the girl forced to prostitution to the man that’s stripped of his freedom to work into labor against his will. The goal is to educate and raise awareness about the dangers of human trafficking because learning about human trafficking can make a difference in our environment.. The only impact Human Trafficking can bring on our society is more victims as we speak. That’s why your stand is important. If you suspect any act of human trafficking, please contact the national human trafficking hotline by dialing 1 (888) 373-7888. Join the fight. Your stand matters.