Unit the UK such as Virgin media, BT, Talk-Talk

Unit 28:
website production

website and internet technology

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Web architecture

Internet service providers- an internet service provider
provides a connection to the internet. They link to a web server with the rest
of the internet and determent on which Internet Service Provider the faster
your connection will be. There are many different service providers in the UK
such as Virgin media, BT, Talk-Talk and PlusNet

Web hosting Services- For a user to upload a website/webpage
to the internet they must use a web server. Web servers are very expensive and
cost a lot of money to maintain so people use web hosting services. A web
hosting service uploads your website to the internet through there own web server
for small fee usually paid monthly. Web hosting services come with other features
such as traffic monitoring (how many people view the website/webpage), Technical
support on hand and they also maintain uptime.

Domain structure-every website has an ip address of its web
server so user purchase domain names which are linked to ip address. User prefer
to use a domain name as they are easier to remember because there made up of
words where as ip address are made up of numbers. for example, www.google.co.uk is far easier to remember than
google ip address

Domain name registrars – A domain name registrars is a
company that manages who uses what domain names and also a domain name registrar
must be recognized by a gTLD or a ccTLD registry. A register operates by using
the guideline of the designated domain name registries.

World Wide Web(www)- The world wide web is an information space
where documents and web resources are identified by a URL (Uniform Resource Locators)
linked by hypertext links and can be used by user through the internet.

Web Components


Web servers- A web server allows user o upload website/ webpages
to the internet. There are different types of software which can be used on a web
server such as open source software: Unix, Linux, ache and paid software: Microsoft
severs. There are two main types of server languages such as php which is used
by Unix, Linux, ache software and ASP/ASPX which is use by Microsoft servers.

Mail Servers- A mail server is used which other programs to create
a messaging system. When a user sends an email you the email program your using
forwards the message to the mail server which then either forwards the email to
another mail sever or its sent to the holding area on the same mail server, so
it can be forwards later. Servers used when sending mail are SMTP, ESMTP and receiving
mail servers are POP3, IMAP.

Router- A router connects different networks to each other
and controls where information packets go. A router can create a table of available
routes and conditions to determine the best route for a certain packet. Router
provide better protections against hacking than any software firewall because
no internet protocols are exposed to the internet.


Browsers- A internet browser is a program that you can use to
access the internet on your computer. You can search using for information using
a browser. The main purpose of a browser is to translate, render, the code of
websites into text and graphics.



could influence a websites performance on the User’s Side


Each different isp has a different download speed. There are many
factors which can affect download speed such as what type of connection you have.
There are four types of connection to the internet Dial up, ISDN, DSL, broadband.
The maximum download speed for dial up is 56 kbit/s, Maximum for ISDN is 128kbps Maximum
for DSL is 3 Mbps and finally the maximum for broadband is currently 300mbps. The lower the
download speed for the user the slower it will be for the user to download the
webpages & assets to view the website. So, company must have to take their
customers download speeds into account to decide what file size are appropriate
for their audience to view their website as quickly as possible.

There are a large amount of different types of browsers and
most browsers uses the same methods to interpret and displaying webpage code. But
some different browsers may differ from these browser so the company will have
to do many test to make sure that all user are able to view the website with which
ever browser they are using.

Cache Memory
Cache memory in this case means that when a user visits a
website the browser stores a copy of that website into an area, Temporary
Files, and when the user revisits that website the browser
loads the cache of the webpage and looks for any changes, changes the webpage
cache accordingly, will allow the website to load faster which are stored
either on the computer’s hard drive or RAM. The larger the cache the quicker
the user can load the website but it slows the user’s computer down. Therefore
the user will need to balance the two factors to then load the website in an
appropriate time while not slowing down their computer.



















Hacking- hacking is when someone tries to access your
computer system without consent with the aim of stealing data, damaging the
system or just to show they can hack your computer. This is why website such as
E-Commerce sites need to prevent hacking so that their business is kept private
and more importantly to keep user details confidential.

Viruses- A virus is a manmade program that causes an unexpected
event which self replicates. Viruses are often disguised as games or images with
very cleaver titles which can be attached to an email or downloadable file. The
word virus has become a term to describe malicious computer programs which produce
unwanted results when they are ran. A worm is a virus that is stored in active memory
of a computer which duplicates itself and Worm can travel through emails and
chat relays. A trojan is a malicious program that pretends to be an application
but purposely does something the user is unaware of but trojans are not
technically viruses since they don’t duplicate them self but can be just as
destructive as any virus

Identity theft- ID theft is a new form of a crime that the
internet has made more common. This method involves a thief who has stolen a victim’s
personal data and uses this data to apply for credit cards, mortgages and
loans. This crime is often noticed when a victim receives request of payment
from the thief’s spending.

protection mechanisms:

Fire walls – a fire wall builds a virtual barrier around a computer
or a network of computer which only allows access of authorised programs. They are
also set up as a gateway which only allows authorised traffic through the gate
gateway so when data is requesting authorisation it is first inspected and if
it authorised the port can be open.

Secure Socket Layers (SSL)- SLL is a cryptographic protocol
that provides secure communication to the internet and also provides endpoint authentication
meaning that bot client and server needs and identified. It also confirms that
they are who they say they are. This is done by public key encryption and
certificate based authentication.

RSA Certificates- RSA certificates is a method of coding
information so that people at either end are identified by a digital
certificate with a digital signature which can confirm identity of the sender
or recipient.

Adherence to standards- Disciplined Adherence to Standards means using a
certain design, operations, and maintenance standards. These standards are followed every time, all
the time, and are continually improved.

Strong passwords-  it
is vital for every computer to use strong passwords, especially important for ecommerce
and web servers. To achieve a strong pass word a user must use Both letter and
numbers, both uppercase and lowercase letters, symbols such as * or # and they
should be more than eight characters long. Users are also recommended to change
their passwords monthly.



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