Unit the child away from the non-threatening dog emphasising

Unit 11

Task-1 Psychological Perspectives

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Introduction:  In this unit I will be and evaluating the role
of the principal psychology perspectives and discuss how to manage and treat
behaviours effectively.

P1 criteria: explain how psychological
perspectives are applied to the understanding of human development.

“Psychology
is a science devoted to the study of the human mind and behaviour. There are
different ‘schools’ of psychology, which have grown up around different ways of
understanding the mind and behaviours” (Billingham
et al 2016: p392)

Behaviourism
is the logical tactic in approaching and understanding the behaviour in humans
and animals. It is believed that all behaviours are either reflex created by a
response to stimuli in the environment or a significant moment in that
individual’s history and can also be the observation of behaviours through
contact with the environment.

Pavlov (1849-1946) was a Russian physiologist
who studied behaviourism in dogs; he worked with dogs to discover how physical
responses could be triggered by food being presented, the physical stimulus
being the bell, he later applied his work to people which was later practiced
by another behavioural psychologist. He also discovered classical conditioning in dogs this was the procedure in
which a ‘biologically potent stimulus’ which is the food, the food is conjoined
with a previously neutral stimulus (a stimulus which creates no fixed response
other than focusing attention) which is the bell. The experiment took place
with a dog, food is presented to dog the dog salivates (because it sees food)
this is before conditioning, bell rings without food the dog does not salivate
(no food present) this is before conditioning, bell rings with food the dog
begins to salivate (it sees the food) this is during conditioning, bell rings
without food the dog salivates (the dog thinks the food is coming) after
condition. Another brief example of conditioning is a young child might play
with a dog with an innocent fascination they are soon taught to fear by example
or simulative.  The older sibling or
mother screams and pulls the child away from the non-threatening dog
emphasising the gesture with a statement such as “you could have been bitten!”
The application of classical conditioning may be used be parent, carers and
teachers to prompt children at certain times of the day i.e. switches light on
and off=work time or tidy up time but parents, carers and teachers must think
about how they may be conditioning children unethically i.e. gives child a gift
or sweet allowing parent, carer or teacher to abuse them. There are three ways to
apply classical conditioning firstly, exposure to treatment, this is the process
where the person with the phobia is regularly exposed to whatever they have a phobia
about until physical response to phobia is gone. Secondly, flooding, this is the
process where the person with the phobia is shown to large amounts of whatever they
are scared of until fear goes away e.g. person who is scared of snakes to 

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