Training second decisions. Both methods are used to protect

Training and Use of CaninesWhen canines are trained for tasks, they are placed in one of two groups: specialist canines and all-purpose canines. Specialist canines can include the Labrador, German shepherd, Dutch Shepherd, Belgian Malinois, Bloodhound, and a few others. Most of the time these specialist canines are used for tracking and searching for missing persons, escaped criminals, and bodies. Besides tracking, canines in this group can also be trained to find narcotics, stolen property, and explosives; they are specialists because each canine is trained to find only one item. Following the specialist canines are the all-purpose canines. These canines must be very strong and intelligent with an excellent olfactory sense. Canines in this group are trained to track, find narcotics, guard suspects, catch fleeing suspects, warn officers of danger, and search many different types of areas. German shepherds appear to be the best type of canine to use for an all-purpose canine (Chapman, 1990).When canines are used as a less-than-lethal tool for apprehending suspects, there are two methods canines can be trained to use. One is the bite and hold method, while the other is the bark and hold method. The bite and hold method involves the canine biting the suspect on the arm or leg and holding him/her until the officer arrives and gives the “out” command (release grasp). But sometimes problems can result from bite injuries and some suspects need medical attention. The bark and hold method involves the canine circling the suspect, barking at him/her until the officer arrives (Mesloh, 2006). However, if the suspect tries to flee or fight the canine, then the dog will bite and hold the suspect until a further command is given. The canine is trained to make appropriate, split second decisions. Both methods are used to protect officers and reduce the need to use lethal force on suspects during the detaining process. Canines are also an added tool for officers because they create psychological effects that reduce the number of assaults. Eyewitness accounts attest to canine effectiveness. As previously stated by Chapman (1990), police use of canines is not considered deadly force, but their speed creates a physical and psychological factor that is advantageous for police. These canines are able to chase down suspects and prevent officers from having to use unnecessary deadly force (Stitt, 1991). Canines produce a psychological effect because they are not only fast, but they confuse and intimidate suspects as well. Suspects do not know how a canine thinks and do not know if or when it will attack. For the most part, this confusion created by the canine allows enough time for officers to apprehend the suspect and prevent further harm (Stitt, 1991). This is because the suspect is focused on the canine and not the officer. An example of this involves sixty members of the Hells Angels who were causing problems in a small town. Ten officers with only two canines warded off the Hells Angels. It was the canines that caused them to back down because the members in the gang said they did not want to deal with the dogs. They feared the possibility of being attacked by one of the dogs (Chapman, 1990; Stitt, 1991).Another incident happened at a football game. Two rival teams were playing each other and kept fighting on the field. Eventually both sides of the stands filed onto the field and joined the fighting. There were only twelve officers present to maintain order at the game. However, one of them was a canine handler and was told to get his dog. The handler put the canine on a long lead and began walking him toward the fighting crowd. With the canine lunging and snarling at the crowd, the mob parted as the canine got close, and the fighting ended with no one being bitten. It took one canine team only five minutes to break up a mob fight without ever letting the canine off the lead with no officers, witnesses, or offenders being harmed (Chapman, 1990). This shows the powerful psychological effect that a canine can have and the ability to deter people from committing further crime. A final example involves a police chief who announced in the papers that the department was beginning a canine program and that these dogs are vicious and trained to attack. This form of policy, according to the police chief, directly led to a decrease in burglaries and thefts around the city. Though this is not empirical evidence, it does spark interest in canines and suggests that they could be worth further study (Chapman, 1990). But all of these incidents dealt with community problems in which canines can be used effectively. Not all communities have the same problems. Perhaps a community has high rates of cyber crime or white collar crime. Agencies responsible for those communities may have fewer canines because canines are not used in those types of tasks. Therefore, depending on the community crimes, an agency may focus on different tasks causing canine use variation. Results show that canines consistently correctly identify scents even if those scents are relatively old. The age of scent drops initially but then after that first drop, it does significantly diminish. In a different study by Schoon (2003), cited by Schoon (2005), with five Dutch dogs and four German shepherds, eight out of twelve tests resulted in positive identifications made on a seven year odor. This is strong evidence suggesting how effective canines can be in policing when searching for drugs or people (Schoon, 2005). In Schoon’s (2005) study, he used pieces of cloth to test the decay of scent and a canine’s ability to identify it over time (ten canines were used). At time zero (the very beginning of the study), all ten canines found the correct piece of cloth. Then at week eight, six canines found the right piece of cloth while three did not recognize any scent and one canine made an incorrect choice. By week twenty-four, three 


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