Thermodynamics Experiment 4 3. Application in Industry. 5 4.

Thermodynamics Lab

Final Report

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Refrigeration Cycle

INTERN

Nicolai Beckmann

Mathias Brune

GROUP Nr. 1

STUDENT

Mohamed Al Saidi

14-0053

i.
Contents
Page
i.       Contents
Page. ii

1.     Introduction.. 3

2.     Theoretical
Background of Experiment 4

3.     Application
in Industry. 5

4.     Experimental
Setup. 6

5.     Experimental
Data and Analysis. 7

6.     Summary/Conclusions. 8

7.     References. 9

Keywords

Condenser,
Compressor, Evaporator, Valve, refrigerant

1.
Introduction

In a Sunny hot day of Oman’s summer, who
of us would not like to escape the heat by only turning on the air conditioner
and having a cold drink out of the refrigerator, I can imagine life would have been
much difficult around here without the refrigeration cycle daily applications
in our lives. From the daily human needs, the need to control the temperature
environment in order to enhance the efficiency of some processes, preserve
things that need a certain temperature to extend the life-time of it or even
just to create a comfortable room temperature for living beings.

the refrigeration cycle is basically based on
the principle that says liquids tend to absorb heat whenever are transformed in
to gas and gasses tend to give off heat when it

changes in to gas, based on
that concept generating the refrigeration cycle became possible, you only have
to create the perfect circumstances for it. In this experiment, we observed the
refrigeration cycle different stages. The condenser and the evaporator in the
Refrigeration Cycle Demonstration Unit are made out of glass, which allows to
see what is actually happening during the refrigeration cycle. Also
experimenting the different types of

2.   Theoretical Background of Experiment

Thermodynamics’
first law explains that energy cannot be neither created nor destroyed,

but can be changed from one form to
another.

The Second Law
of Thermodynamics states that heat always flows from a material at a high

temperature to a material at a low temperature

For economic reasons the refrigerant is used repeatedly in the
refrigeration

system, that is why all the
components of the system (Compressor, Condenser,

Evaporator and expansion valve) must
be in one closed cycle, in this case the

refrigerant will be moving the heat
from a part to another in order to cool up

an area.

In the first step the refrigerant
will enter the compressor in a low-pressure

gas form, which will be compressed
into a high-pressure gas

At point 2, the high-pressure gas
will flow to the condenser, which will transform

there into liquid causing a heat
release.

as it leaves out of the condenser
the liquid will flow under high pressure towards

the expansion valve, the valve will
control the pressure and release the refrigerant

in a lower pressure.

Point 4, the low-pressure liquid
refrigerant will flow to the Evaporator, from its name

the evaporator evaporates liquid
into gas using the inside hot air of the system

causing a hot low-pressure gas
released out of the Evaporator into the compressor

again.

from that we conclude that this
system has to parts, a part with high pressuring

and high temperature by the
condenser, the other part has low pressure and low

temperature by the evaporator

This difference in Pressure/Temperature has created the perfect
circumstances

for a heat transfer between the two
areas

Refrigeration Cycles:

– Vapor-Compression Cycle

– Thermal Operating Machine

– Vapor Absorption Cycle

– Gas Cycle

–

–
Multistage Compression Refrigeration

–
Multipurpose Refrigeration Systems

–
Thermoelectric Refrigeration Systems

3.
Application
in Industry

Many applications now days are based on the refrigeration cycle
principle, a few of

Widley used applications are:

A)
Air Conditioning

Air conditioning is a major application around this spot of the
world, it provides good Thermal and comfortable environment for living beings
or even to create the temperature range which allows processes to be efficient
and products to stay in a good condition. This field of refrigeration cycle
applications includes air conditioning systems for residences, commercial,
hospitals and objects such as Laptops and mobiles

B)
Food processing, preservation and distribution

Food related refrigeration systems are a very important application,
the case with food is that we can keep it in a good condition if we store it in
a low temperature environment. Meat, vegetables and fruits are kept for longer
time now days by controlling the processing, preservation and distribution of
it.

C) Process and Chemical industries

In industry the refrigeration cycle is used in:

– To separate gases in petrochemical

– To liquefies gases

– To remove heat from many reactions
in chemical industries

– To dehumidifies processed air in
pharmaceutical industries

– To recover a solvent

– To store a low-boiling point
liquid

4.
Experimental Setup

The
Refrigeration Cycle Demonstration Unit is a unit that makes it clearly visible
to observe the refrigeration cycle and the steps that are included in this
cycle. The unit is build out of 2 vertical glass cylinders closed on both sides
with copper coil plated in nickel, those are the condenser and the evaporator,
which are connected to each other’s with a maze of tubes forming a closed
circle. A Compressor held in order to withdraw the low-pressure vapour out of
the evaporator and compress it into a high-pressure gas, after that the gas
will flow into the condenser. In the condenser the gas will turn in to
high-pressure liquid, after the liquid gets out of the condenser it will go
through a valve that lowers the pressure making it a low-pressure liquid going
again to the evaporator.

The included components:

1.Condenser

2.Evaporator

3.Compressor

4.Expansion Valve

5.Temperature Sensors

6.Flow Meters

7.Manometers

8.Wattmeter

Security
Measures:

9.Relief Valve

10.Isolation Valves

11.Control Valves

12.Temperature Sensors Connections

13.Temperaute Digital Display

14.Compressor Switch

15.Digital Display for Wattmeter

16.High Pressure Control Connection

17.Cables, Accessories

5.
Experimental
Data and Analysis

Experiment: Demonstration of Vapor Compression Refrigeration
or Heat Pump Cycle:

Experimental Data:

T1
Evaporator
Inlet

T2
Evaporator
Outlet

T3
Condenser
Outlet

T4
Condenser
Inlet

Evaporator
Flow

Condenser
Flow

Power
Consumption

27.6 °C

26 °C

33.9 °C

28 °C

12 g/s

25 g/s

240 W

27.3 °C

21.5 °C

32.7 °C

27.8 °C

12 g/s

6 g/s

225 W

27 °C

20.8 °C

27.5 °C

27.5 °C

4 g/s

6 g/s

225 W

Analysis:

Ø
In case of
maintenances of the refrigeration closed system, if the Condenser is under maintenance
the refrigerant will be kept in the Evaporator and the other way around.

Ø
T2 is always
less than T1, that means the flow going into the Evaporator is always have higher
temperature relative to the flow going out of the Evaporator.

Ø
In order to
calculate the Compressor ration, we will need to calculate the Condenser pressure
over Evaporator pressure Pc/Pe .
( we could not take the pressure measurements due to technical difficulties)

6.
Summary/Conclusions

The experiment was designed to implement and observe a refrigeration
cycle in process. The setup used a Refrigeration cycle demonstration unit in
order to be fully able to observe the process of refrigeration. The amount of
gas used was constant, but the flow rate was slowly altered. The key
observation was, when the flow rate is decreased, the system allows for better
heat transfer thusly allowing the system to be more efficient and effective,
albeit using a bit more power.

7.
References

http://www.central-air-conditioner-and-refrigeration.com/basic-refrigeration-cycle.html

https://www.swtc.edu/Ag_Power/air_conditioning/lecture/basic_cycle.htm

http://www.enggarena.net/2015/07/applications-of-refrigeration-and-air.html

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