There are many challenges and impacts in the early years of the industrial revolution. First and foremost, the influential labor force of the industrial revolution has transformed many social societies. In the 16th century England, most women were involved in industry and agriculture and their home was central of production center. Women have an important role in every aspect such as in running farms, trafficking and landed farms. In the 17th century, labour division increased and women at that time lost their jobs. In addition, women also do not become important people in industrial companies and the husband taking paid labour jobs outside the home.
Enclosure movement is a cause of the industrial revolution which defines as wealthy farmers bought land from small farmers, then from economies of scale in farming huge tracts of land. The enclosure movement led to improving crop production, such as the rotation of crops. People began moving to cities, where they could more easily work in factories than on farmland. In England, population growth caused former farmers or children of farmers to migrate from southeastern England to the northwest, where factories were being built. Enclosure movement gives an effect which poor farmers bankrupt and unemployed. Wife reduced to unpaid household work. Middle and upper women confined to the idle domestic existence and supervising servants. Women at the low class were forced to take poorly paid jobs. Machines capable of huge outputs were cause small hand weavers redundant and too expensive.
Then, people were forced to work and factories to earn money. Because of this situation, urbanization was created. The labours who work for a long time hours just can earn less money. Higher living expenses have given a burden to society to adapt their lives in the urban life. The people who established the textile mill factories hired children and women to increase their profit and to decrease their labour cost by giving poor working conditions and paying them low wages. The factories were taken advantages of children because child labor was the cheapest labor of all. Some of these machines were so easy to operate that a small child could perform the simple, repetitive tasks. Some maintenance tasks, such as squeezing into tight spaces, could be performed more easily by children than adults. And, children did not try to join workers unions or go on strike. Best of all, they were paid 1/10 of what men were paid. It’s not surprising, then, that children were heavily employed in the first factories in history. In 1789, in Richard Arkwright’s new spinning factory, two-thirds of 1,150 factory workers were children (Ashton 93).
In addition, the industrial revolution has led to a breakdown of family members. Work and home life became sharply separated. Men earned money for their families. Women took care of the home and saw their economic role decline. The residential area of a shared, slums and poor sanitation has caused infant mortality increased which 50% of infants died before the age of 2 (Stearns, 1991). The children spent in the factories prevented them from spending time with their neighbors, friends, and family. Then, the children who forced to be a labour, have little education, and stunted growth occur to themselves.