The U.S. Supreme Court recognized a woman’s constitutional right to abortion in the 1973 Supreme Court case: Roe v. Wade. In that case, the Court held that states cannot ban abortions before a fetus is viable outside the uterus, states cannot place any post-viability restrictions that endanger a women’s health and life, and any restrictions placed on abortions before the point of viability cannot place an “undue burden” on women. This precedent has been repeatedly challenged by states that have often successfully tried to limit women’s access to abortion services. Manys states have placed restrictions an abortion services and access. For example, many states require that women observe a waiting period before they can have an abortion. Most recently in 2016, the Supreme Court struck down a Texas law that placed such significant burdens on abortion clinics that many in the state would have had to close down. The law, which would have required doctors to have admitting privileges at hospitals and clinics to meet the standards of ambulatory surgical centers, placed an undue burden on women seeking abortions. The law was based in no justifiable medical evidence and would have forced women to drive hundreds of miles if they were seeking abortion services. The law would have forced the closure of 75% of Texas’ 41 existing clinics and would have placed serious strain on the remaining clinics. The requirements for surgical center standards as necessary for patient safety were particularly thinly veiled as death during childbirth is 14 times more likely than death during an abortion.During his presidential campaign, Trump suggested that abortion should be banned and that women who violate that ban should be penalized. Although he later retracted this statement,Abortion is one of the safest surgical procedures for women in the United States with fewer than .05% of women experiencing complications.According to a Pew Research Center survey conducted in 2016, about 60% of adults believe that abortion should be legal in all or most cases. graph Using data from 2012, GALLUP found that most Americans hold a middle-of-the-road view on abortions (i.e. abortions should be legal under certain circumstances). This graph shows the trend in opinions on whether or not abortion should be legal. When support for abortion is broken down further, we learn that Democrats are much more supportive of the legality of abortion than Republicans.Unsurprisingly, support for abortion drops the later in pregnancy an abortion is performed. While more than 60% of people support the legality of abortion in the first trimester, tha number decreases to 27% in the second-trimester, and again to only 14% in the third-trimester. New York State places restricts abortions after 24 weeks except if the women’s life is in danger. While Roe v. Wade codified the constitutional right to abortion before viability, abortions must remain legal even after that period. Women who receive abortions in the third trimesterFaso generally opposes abortion except for cases where the mother’s life is in danger. Faso once said that Roe v. Wade was a “black mark” on America and the Supreme Court. Faso also voted a bipartisan attempt to ensure safe access to abortion clinics and to protection women against stalking.Prior to the legalization of abortion, many women who found themselves with unintended pregnancies induced their own abortions or sought out “back-alley” doctors to aid them. For many women, these illegal abortions resulted in sexual assault by those inducing their abortions, or serious health complications and even death. While the legal status of abortion affects the safety of the procedure, it does not affect the number of women who seek abortions.There are many reasons why women might seek an abortion, including: they are in school, they are a victim of domestic violence, they don’t have the economic resources, and they already have several children. A fetus should not have the right to life and liberty over a woman. The constitutional right to an abortion is largely rooted in the fourteenth amendment, which protects our liberty and protects us from undue government interference. As was written by justices Souter, O’Connor and Kennedy, “These matters, involving the most intimate and personal choices a person may make in a lifetime, choices central to personal dignity and autonomy, are central to the liberty protected by the Fourteenth Amendment. At the heart of liberty is the right to define one’s own concept of existence, of meaning, of the universe and of the mystery of human life. Beliefs about these matters could not define the attributes of personhood were they formed under compulsion of the State.”Women have the right to control their bodies and their reproductive lives. When women are faced with so many other hurdles like limited access to health care and balancing work and family life, it’s no wonder many would decide they are unable to raise a child.There is not access to abortion in 90% of US counties.90% of abortions are performed in the first trimester. Half of women who have abortions after the first trimester do so because they could not find a provider, they had to obtain parental consent, they had to travel a long distance for care, or they needed to raise money.The impact on the individual lives of women and their families is too often glossed over in debates on abortion.About one third of American women will have had an abortion by age 45.30% of abortion restrictions were enacted between 2010 and 2016.Nationally, the number of abortions decreased 14% between 2011 and 2014. Access to affordable/free contraception is also vital to the reproductive lives of women. Almost all American women (99%) have used some form of contraception. Contraception is widely popular and remains one of the most basic forms of preventive reproductive care. Contraception has provided women with the agency and freedom to focus on other areas of their lives, like their careers. A study published in the American Economic Journal: Applied Economics found that the birth control pill is responsible for one-third of the increase in women’s earnings compared to those of men. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has hailed contraception as one of the ten greatest public health achievements of the twentieth century. The profound effect of contraception on women and their families cannot be overstated. This graph shows some of the reasons that women use contraception. graph on pg 8 Additionally, about 70% of women reported that one very important reason for using birth control is that they could not afford the financial responsibilty of a child. But despite its economic and health benefits, legilsation has contatntly been proposed to limit women’s access to contraception. New York state law requires health-insurance plans that cover prescription medication to also cover contraception.