The second leading cause of death throughout the world is stroke and it is third leading cause of disability in adults

The second leading cause of death throughout the world is stroke and it is third leading cause of disability in adults (1,2).Many studies in different countries have shown the prevalence of stroke as 500-800 0f 100,000 population(3,4).The frequency of stroke can be reduced if the risk factor causing different types of strokes are identified, avoided or they are modified and removed. Low and middle income countries have more chances of stroke and on other hand they have less resources to treat it and decrease the stroke related disability but few studies are conducted in these regions to identify the risk factors causing stroke(1,2,5,6,7). These are the risk factors of stroke and can be modified to reduce the occurrence and rate of stroke: High blood pressure, smoking, diet, physical activity, cardiac problem alcohol intake and diabetes(8).High blood pressure is considered as primary cause of all types of stroke(9-13).Ciggerate smoking is also a known cause of cerebral infarction(9,10,13,14) and subarachnoid hemorrhage(12).Data about HDL cholesterol level as a risk factor for stroke is very less but it is considered to be protective for cerebral infarction(15).Atrial fibrillation is considered as major risk factor of stroke and its increased incidence is due to other cardiovascular diseases and age(16,17).
There are thousands of individuals attacked by stroke and up to three million have some type of post stroke disabilities(18) and majority of individuals suffer with neurological problems(19,20) but these patient gain some degree of independency in basic living activities(eating, walking, continence)(21) but still they report increase dependency in other activities( work management and other time spending activities).Depression is a major post stroke problem of patients which affect the physical activities (22) and it affect 23%-63% of patients after stroke (23,24,25,26).Muscle weakness is also a striking problem in stroke patients which can increase the dependency of individuals(27). Patients have difficulty to psychologically adapt themselves to their disabilities after stroke their emotional responses are altered and their personal behavior towards relation is changed which affect the marital status and they are socially isolated(28).This study was conducted to find out the prevalence and risk factors of stroke and disabilities related to stroke which markedly affect the individuals.


We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

1. Feigin VL. Stroke in developing countries: can the epidemic be
stopped and outcomes improved? Lancet Neurol 2007; 6: 94–97.
2. Strong K, Mathers C, Bonita R. Preventing stroke: saving lives
around the world. Lancet Neurol 2007; 6: 182–87.
3. Wang CC, Cheng XM, Li SZ, Bolis CL, Schoenberg BS:
Epidemiology of cerebrovascular disease in an urban community
of Beijing, People’s Republic of China. Neuroepidemiology

4. . Anderson DW, Schoenberg BS, Haerer AF: Racial differentials
in the prevalence of major neurological disorders.

5. O’Donnell M, Yusuf S. Tackling the global burden of stroke: the need
for large-scale international studies. Lancet Neurol 2009; 8: 306–07.
6. Ariesen MJ, Claus SP, Rinkel GJ, Algra A. Risk factors for
intracerebral hemorrhage in the general population: a systematic
review. Stroke 2003; 34: 2060–65.

7. Donnan GA, Hankey GJ, Davis SM. Intracerebral haemorrhage:
a need for more data and new research directions. Lancet Neurol
2010; 9: 133–34.
8. Ischaemic stroke J. F. Meschia and T. Brott Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA

9. Neaton JD, Wentworth DN, Cutler J, Stamler J, Kuller L. Risk factors for
death from different types of stroke: Multiple Risk Factor Intervention
Trial Research Group. Ann Epidemiol. 1993;3:493– 499.

10. Jamrozik K, Broadhurst RJ, Anderson CS, Stewart-Wynne EG. The role
of lifestyle factors in the etiology of stroke: a population-based casecontrol
study in Perth, Western Australia. Stroke. 1994;25:51–59.

11. Juvela S, Hillbom M, Paloma¨ki H. Risk factors for spontaneous intracerebral
hemorrhage. Stroke. 1995;26:1558 –1564.

12. Teunissen LL, Rinkel GJE, Algra A, van Gijn J. Risk factors for subarachnoid
hemorrhage: a systematic review. Stroke. 1996;27:544 –549.

13. Haapaniemi H, Hillbom M, Juvela S. Lifestyle-associated risk factors for
acute brain infarction among persons of working age. Stroke. 1997;28:
14. Shinton R, Beevers G. Meta-analysis of relation between cigarette
smoking and stroke. Br Med J. 1989;298:789 –794.
15. Gordon T, Kannel WB, Castelli WP, Dawber TR. Lipoproteins, cardiovascular
disease, and death: the Framingham Study. Arch Intern Med.
1981;141:1128 –1131
16. Phillips SJ: Is atrial fibrillation an independent risk factor for
stroke? Can J Neurol Sci 1990;17:163-168

17. Chesebro JH, Fuster V, Halpcrin JL: Atrial fibrillation: Risk
marker for stroke (editorial). N Engl J Med 1990;323:
18. American Heart Association. Heart and Stroke Facts. Dallas, Tex: American Heart Association; 1991. Google Scholar

19. ? Wolf PA, D’Agostino RB, O’Neal MA, Sytkowski P, Kase CS, Belanger A, Kannel WB. Secular trends in stroke incidence and mortality: the Framingham Study. Stroke. 1992;23:1551-1555. Abstract/FREE Full TextGoogle Scholar
20. ? Jorgensen HD, Nakayama H, Raaschou HO, Vive-Larsen J, Stoier M, Olsen TS. Outcome and time course of recovery in stroke, part 1: outcome. The Copenhagen Stroke Study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1995;76:406-412. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

21. Schuling J, Greidanus J, Meyboom-De Jong B. Measuring functional status of stroke patients with the Sickness Impact Profile. Disabil Rehabil.. 1993;15:19-23. PubMedGoogle Scholar

22. ? Ahlsio B, Britton M, Murray V, Theorell T. Disablement and quality of life after stroke. Stroke. 1984;15:886-890. Abstract/FREE Full TextGoogle Scholar

23. ? Kelly-Hayes M, Paige C. Assessment and psychologic factors in stroke rehabilitation. Neurology. 1995;S29-S32. Google Scholar

24. ? Finklestein SP, Weintraub RJ, Karmouz N, Askinazi C, Davar G, Baldessarini RJ. Antidepressant drug treatment for post stroke depression: retrospective study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1987;68:772-776. PubMedGoogle Scholar

25. ? Dam H, Penderson HE, Damkjaer M, Ahlgren P. Dexamethasone suppression test in depressive stroke patients. Acta Neurol Scand. 1991;84:14-17. PubMedGoogle Scholar

26. ? Robinson RG, Bolduc PL, Kubos KL, Starr LB, Price TR. Social functioning assessment in stroke patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1985;66:496-500. PubMedGoogle Scholar

27. Teixeira-Salmela LF, Olney SJ, Nadeau S, Brouwer B. Muscle strengthening and physical conditioning to reduce impairment and disability in chronic stroke survivors. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 1999 Oct 1;80(10):1211-8.

28. Murray CD, Harrison B. The meaning and experience of being a stroke survivor: an interpretative phenomenological analysis. Disability and rehabilitation. 2004 Jul 8;26(13):808-16.


I'm Dianna!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out