The ppm on the vase life of gerbera cut

The results of analysis of variance vase life of cut Alstroemeria
hybrid flowers showed that the effect of interaction of treatments (T) in
different methods (M) on the vase life of Alstroemeria was significant at 1%
level so that there was a significant difference at 1% level between chemical
treatments at all levels and preservative methods (Table 2a). In general, the
maximum vase life of Alstroemeria was related to the interaction effect of
silver nanoparticles treatment with a concentration of 10 ppm (NS2) and the
pre-harvest methods (B) with an average of 23 days. Furthermore, the minimum
vase life of Alstroemeria was related to the interaction effect of the DW
treatment (distilled water and sucrose 20%) and the pulse method (A1) with an
average of 11.33 days (Fig.1). The results are in accordance with the findings
of (Liu etal.,
2009) that are
the positive impact of silver nanoparticles at a concentration of 5 ppm on the
vase life of gerbera cut flower. In another study, it was reported

that a concentration of 1.5 mM salicylic acid had increased the
vase life of cut gladiolus flower from 18 days for the control group to 21 days
Marandi et al., 2011). The use of any
of treatments of spermine and herbal essential oils increased vase life and
vase life compared to the control that these results correspond with the
results of other research in this area (Lee et
al., 1997; Zhang et al., 2003). R1 Many
studies indicated that nanosilver increase quality and vase life of cut flowers
such as gerbera (Solgiet
al., 2009) and lilium(Kim et
al., 2005). Basiriet
al. (2011) showed that
Nano silver could extend the vase life of cut carnation. NS particles are
commonly used in a range of fields for its antimicrobial properties, including
the medical industry and for vegetable disinfestations (Jiang et
al., 2004). These
effects have been confirmed by Liu et al.(2009) who
reported that NS could profoundly inhibit bacterial growth in vase solutions,
as well as at plant stem ends, which concomitantly results in the extended vase
life of the flowers. Jin et al. (2006)
demonstrated that salicylic acid improved flower tolerance to water deficit
stress and increased vase life of cut rose flowers. Spermine has a
well-established role in the stimulation of cell division and in the delay of
senescence. Besides, it is known for its anti-senescence effects during an
aging sequence of plant tissues (Kitadaet
al.,1979). Variance
analysis of the data shows that the amount of chlorophyll a, b, and the total
is statistically significant at 1% level of likelihood. As shown in (Table 2a
and Fig.2a, 2b, 2c) application of pre-harvest Nano silver treatment (10 ppm)
is found to be more effective in a decrease in chlorophyll degradation. Among
the studied treatments, Nano silver (NS2) and control (DW) treatments had
respectively the highest and lowest chlorophyll contents during an experiment
in all methods. MousaviBazaz and Tehranifar(2011)
investigated the effects of cumin, mint and thyme extracts (50 and 100 mgl-1)
and ethanol (4 and 7%) on the vase life of cut Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriasp)
and reported that all treatments were effective on vase life Alstroemeria cut
flowers. The decrease in chlorophyll is considered to be a symptom of oxidative
stress condition, this decrease after infection might be due to the generation
of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing damage to chlorophyll a, implying the
plant’s failure to capture the light and thus photosynthesis will be decreased
or stopped (Ali and Alquarainy, 2006). This reduction may be because of
chlorophyll degradation, reduced chlorophyll synthesis, and stability of
thylakoid membrane. In addition, it may be associated with the increased
activity of chlorophyllase enzyme (El-Shanhoreyet
al.,2014). It seems
that the above anti-ethylene treatments cause the preservation of Chlorophyll
by inhibition of the activity of chlorophyllase enzyme and development of
chloroplasts. Yellowing of the leaves is a common phenomenon in many sensitive
species such as Astroemeria, Lilium, Chrysanthemum and stock.
In many species, leaf yellowing may be caused by placing plants in the dark for
a long time during storage or transport (Ferranteet
al., 2002).
MousaviBazaz and Tehranifar (2011) evaluated the effects of herbal essential
oils on Alstroemeria cut flower and found that the use of these compounds is
effective to increase chlorophyll content. In addition, similar results were
reported which confirm our findings(Hashemabadi,2011;Basiriet
al., 2011).

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test showed that interaction treatments (T) in the methods (M) of the SOD
enzyme were significant on cut flowers on different days. The results showed
that SOD activity decreased significantly during the experiment. Among all
treatments of Nano silver, NS2 had the highest SOD activity and the lowest
activity of the SOD enzyme was related to control treatment (DW) at all
methods. Overall, the highest amount of SOD enzyme was the application of
pre-harvest Nano silver (10 ppm) with 3% sucrose on the 12th day with an
average of 120 µmol/g F.W. and the lowest amount of SOD activity was the
application of pulsing (distilled water with 20%sucrose) with an average of
22.68 µmol/g F.W. on the 12th day(Tables 2b and 3b).







test results showed that the statistically significant effect of different
treatments and methods on content of MDA (P


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