The Eyjafjallajokull volcano eruption happen the
14 April 2010, it is located under an ice
in south of Iceland.The
volcano is 1666 meter tall.
The Eurasian plate is moving away from the North
American plate. As they moving away from each other, a gap is created between
them and the magma wells up from the mantle. It fill up the gap and form a new
layer of crust. As this occurs the lava is becoming solid and it create a
The 150 meter thick ice cap above the volcano
melted, which create a thick layer of ash because of the eruptions of huge
quantities of ash. The volcano melted which caused major flooding,the crater risk
to melt with further flooding expected.
The social damage were that 20 farms which was
damaged by the flooding and around 700 people were evacuated. Homes and roads
were damaged and electricity service also. Local water supplies were
contaminated by fluoride from the ash. The environment damage were that
agricultural production was affected as animals have been killed during the
flooding and trees fell causing damage. For the economic damage, 10
million of air passengers have their travels disturbed. The airline lost £2
billion in total and the drop in tourist number have affected Iceland economy
and people jobs.
Short-term responses and results:
Farmers couldn’t let animals drink from outdoor
water because the fluoride caused by the eruption would be deadly to them.
Roads were removed to allow water to go into the sea and reduce damage. The
government have created a warning system to send text to warn for flooding to
the Iceland people.
Long-term responses and results:
Houses and roads were rebuilt, new rules were
set such as introducing aircraft to follow if volcanic ash might cause a
problem. Some farmers return to their farms and the volcano is now a tourist
attraction. A farmer family set up a visitor center where they tell
tourists their story and earn money from their visits.
Lessons for the future:
An international team use a GPS, seismic
monitoring and satellite radar interferometry to track years of deformations
and volcano activity on and around Eyjafjallajökull volcano.