The dialogue of Phaedo is a conversation between Phaedo and Echecrates that took place in Philus. This converstation is about how Socrates spent his final hours before the man was executed. On Phaedo’s account of what happened Socrates spent his final moments with some of his good old friends, including crito and two Pythagorean Philisophers, Simmais and Cebes. Phaedo begins narrating that Socrates proposed that suicide is unacceptable, and a true philosopher has already accepted the reality of dying. That the soul, Socrates believes is immortal, and is trapped in our human body, thus the philosophers have spent their whole life trying to detach the soul from the lusts of the flesh and are the seeking true wisdom. Socrates has provided three arguments to support his claim.
Firstly, the argument of opposites states that opposites are generated out of their opposite. He illustrates this by showing Simmias and Cebes some example, like sleeping only comes because that person must have been awake beforehand. Similarly Death is the opposite of Life, and so dead things have come from living things and vice versa. This implies that there is a never ending cycle between life and death. Supporting the claim that the dead will not stay dead forever but will live again after some period of time.
Secondly, the theory of recollection stating that knowledge is already within us and we are just recollecting it as we live our lives. We forget much of our knowledge at birth but can be made to recollect this knowledge thorough proper questioning. The fact that we had that knowledge by birth but just forgot it indicates that the soul must have existed before we were born.
Thirdly, the argument from Affinity which sets the distinction between the immaterial, invisible, and immortal from those that is material, visible, and perishable. Thus saying that the soul is of the first kind and the body is the second one. This suggests that the soul ought to be immortal and survive death.
Socrates ends the dialogue by answering all their concerns regarding his claims. Then proceeds to talk about what happens to the soul after death .Takes a bath, bid farewell to important people and the people that was there, drinks the poisonous hemlock, and slowly drifting away from this world to the other.