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The culture of Iran before the revolution and after were drastically different. From country resources to social reforms, to infrastructure, situations in Iran changed for the better after the revolution. Without the revolution, Iran would have stayed in the dark while the rest of the world progressed, or the country would have developed but at a much slower rate. Prior to the revolution of 1978-79, Iran was considered a resourceless country, even under Shah Pahlavi’s rule. Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi was the last monarch ruler of Iran under the Pahlavi Dynasty which reigned from 1925-1979. Iran had dry, arid lands and only one navigable river Karun, which caused the country to not have any form of shipping industries, mining goods such as gold, silver etc. About half the land in Iran could not be cultivated to provide produce for the country, nor were there any paved roads to transport goods. Still, any transport was traveled by pack animal which usually took about one hundred days.Approximately 90% of the people were illiterate.  Thus showing how under the Shah’s rule, Iran was in a time where no technological or country advances were taking place.  But in the early 70’s, there was a profound boom in the economy due to oil revenues quadrupling turning Tehran into a capital attraction.  People started to swarm into the cities due to lack of jobs in the rural areas, in hopes to find a job in the city. Consequently, instead of bettering their lives, it only got worse because the migraters started to live the village lifestyle while living in an urban area. In response to that, the Shah formulated developments he believed would advance the country. Such as making Boeing 747 for Iran Air, nuclear power plants, etc all due to the oil boom.  Iranian income went from $200 to $1000 per capita.  In 1977, the economy hit a speed bump because the education, urbanization and industrialization expectations were not being met as quickly. Therefore, the Shah enforced anti-inflation programs which did more harm than good, by putting numerous people out of employment. These were some factors as to why people revolted, but in order for it takes place, inspiration was greatly needed. According to Crane Brinton, author of The Anatomy of Revolution, said, “Revolutions are more likely when social classes are much closer than when far apart.”  This concludes that if what Brinton is stating is plausible about how the Iranian revolution occurred, then the people who made the revolution possible were from relatively the same backgrounds. Unlike after the revolution, society and customs before the revolution were very strict and religion orientated. Previous to the 19th century, religious education was only limited to boys and of those boys, ones who come from a wealthy background received religious studies and other traditional matters such as history, math, science, etc. Similarly, boys were the only ones that could pursue a postsecondary education which only remains like that till 1923. Family in pre-revolutionary Iran was deeply rooted in traditional customs. Boys were favored over girls most of the time. Women were expected to stay home and take part in the feminine jobs such as cooking, cleaning, taking care of the children, etc. Wives could be prevented to work if the husbands believed it would interfere with her being a good mother and wife.  In spite of this happening under the Shah’s rule, he made reforms to improve things. Between 1925-1979, the monarchy’s plan was to enforce a strong education system set up like the French education system but failed to do so. An example of this failure would be in 1940, 10% of children of primary age were enrolled in school and between the age of 12 and 20, less than 1% were in middle and/or high school. Moreover, the statistical changes did not occur until the 1960s. In Iran, a child would go to five years of primary school (elementary), three years of lower secondary school (middle school), three years of higher secondary school (high school), and one year of pre-university of education; totaling to twelve years of education. On the other hand, Shah Pahlavi had concrete goals on how he envisioned Iran. According to James Buchan, a Scottish historian, the Pahlavi’s wanted to monopolize authority when it came down to how Iranians were to manage themselves. But Iranians thought differently. They thought they should have a say in how the wealth that the country accumulated was going to be distributed. Moreover, the Shah’s vision did not reflect what people thought should happen. The revolution of 1978-79 happened due to poor living under the Shah’s dictatorship. In stark contrast to just one big continuous revolution, it was a series of rallies lead by educated, second generation migrants that were organized at the workplace, thus leading to the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty and end dictatorship which brought the idea of democracy. The people wanted Khomeini because he made promises that appealed to them. Ayatollah Sayyid Khomeini was the Shia Muslim leader that took the place of Shah Reza Mohammed after he got overthrown. He also made propaganda against the Shah’s regime which helps spark the revolution. Khomeini promised things like oil and water prices would lower. But instead, none of that happened. In fact, the prices were skyrocketing. According to Camelia Entekhabifard, an Iranian journalist who was six years old when the revolution happened. Her statements contradict what Khomeini promised which was free electricity and money from oil revenues. What majority of the population thought came out the revolution was unemployment, a high cost of living, poverty, and inflation. Approximately 15 million people were classified living below the poverty line. Inflation rates were at a staggering 38.4%. All of this data points to Khomeini’s ultimate disaster. During the Shah’s rule, Khomeini made promises to the public appealing them into helping him overthrow the dictatorship government. Once that was fully achieved, he used the public’s liking towards him to his advantage to enforce what he wanted. Such as gender inequality, making it more tough on women than men. Freedom of speech was held to a minimum where permission to express was given. Some would agree that under the Shah’s rule majority of Iranians were in middle class, yet under Khomeini’s rule, most were poor unless they had royal blood. All in all, the main goal was to create a good life for Iranians, but with different changes in government things not only did not get better but got worse, so nothing got solved.A wide alliance of Shah opposing forces faced the monarchy. Despite having received severe repression against protestors. A series of rallies and strikes happened over the entirety of two years which came to climax in 1978. Millions of people who hated the Shah’s regime took the streets of Iran. Overwhelmed by the situation, Shah Pahlavi bolted from Iran into exile in January 1979. At the time Khomeini was in exile and he returned to Iran to govern the new country he calls the Islamic Republic of Iran.After the revolution, tremendous change happened. There has been a consistent number of Iranian students emigrating to preferable place such as Western Europe, America and occasionally Turkey.  An estimate about 750,000 to 1.5 million students. Evidence can be shown during the 1980 US census which found that there were 122,000 Iranians living in the United States, in that, the largest concentration of Iranians in Southern California in 1987, exceeding 200,000. Desecularization of the school systems was the first step the government took after the revolution. Rather keeping all the teachers in the system, the government took measures to only keep the teachers who understood the religion of Islam to the deepest measure in schools and all the others were kicked out. The behavior of pupils was regulated through various sorts of disciplines such as keeping their behaviors in check. Still, an achievement can conclude that between 1986-1987, the Ministry of Education declared that virtually 11.5 million children were enrolled in primary, secondary and postsecondary institutions. Eventually, rural areas modernized. In 1980, the infant mortality rate went down 50%, notwithstanding the fact that the population was increasing rapidly.  Furthermore, the government went to certain extents to improve the lives of Iranians by enhancing the fundamental needs, such as healthcare, education, and infrastructure. These changes happened all over the country, especially in rural and urban areas. All in all, through the extensive research made, the evidence and reasoning show that before the revolution life was very nomadic and conservative, although things changed for the better. There was not basic infrastructure and when people began to move into cities, the continues living the way they lived before. Men and women were not equal, to the extent where women were not given much freedom as men. But when the revolution came, most would say life got worse, but extreme changes did come, to the point where women were allowed to go to school to pursue an education. But things like sticking to the religion of Islam never changed. It was the same before and after the revolution. Furthermore, without the revolution, Iran would not be the way it is present day. Maybe without it, the country would have flourished but at a slower rate. But the revolution was greatly needed to cause change immediately and give an eye opener to the people living there.


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