THE Islamic nation (only Islamic Shari’a law applies to

THE
REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA

 

Demographics

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The
Republic of Indonesia is located in Southeast Asia between Indian Ocean and
Pacific Ocean, it is the worlds largest Island Country with 17.508 islands. It
has approximately 265 Million population in the year of 2017. And it is 4th of
the biggest country in the World by population. As ethnicity includes hundreds
of millions of different ethnic groups and cultures, diversity is varied.
However, more than half of the population can be classified as belonging to two
main ethnic groups. Those two groups are Javanese (%40,6) and Sundanese (%15)
and we can mention about other etnic groups as Madurese
(%3,3), Minangkabau (%2.7), Betawi (%2,4), Bugis (%2,4) Banten (%2), Banjar
(%1,7) and others. The most striking core of the distribution of the country is
very uneven.

.

Population growth

 

Between
2000 and 2017, Indonesia’s annual national population growth rate was 1.28
percent on average. This growth was highest in Papua % 5.43 and lowest in Central
Java % 0,36. Family planning in Indonesia is coordinated by the National Family
Planning Coordination Board (NFPCB), a government agency. According to
President Suharto, effective family planning was initiated in 1968 and his
succession continued to daylight. Total Population growth rate is % 0,87
estimated according to 2017.

 

Age Structure

An
important strength of the demographic composition associated with the
Indonesian economy is that the country has a young population. This young
population implies a potentially large work force. Indonesia’s median age is
28.3 years of 2017 estimates. This shows that half of the population is over 28
years old and the other half is younger. According to the sex, women were
compared with middle age, female elderly 28.1 years and elderly male 29.1
years.

 

Religion

In terms of
religion, the majority of the Indonesian population is Muslim. Approximately
87.2 percent of the total Indonesian population or 207.2 million people in
absolute numbers are Muslims. However, Indonesia is not an Islamic nation (only
Islamic Shari’a law applies to Aceh’s special region at the north end of
Sumatra). But despite this being a secular democracy, the principles of Islamic
doctrine play an important role in Indonesian politics, economy and society.
There are Protestants 16.5 million (%6.9), Catholics 6.9 million (%2.9) and
Hindus 4 million (%1.7). Finally, there are Buddhist minorities as well as
people who practice Confucianism, a member of ethnic Chinese society.

 

Geographical Structure

Indonesia
located in Southern Asia between the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean in
Coordinates 5:00 S , 120: 00 E, Total Area 1.904.569 sq km as Land 1.811,569 sq
km and Water 93.000 sq km. Total land boundaries 2.958 km and border countries
are Malesia, Papua New Guinea and Timor Leste. Country has 54.716 km cost line,
and climate is tropical, hot and humid,

 

Indonesia’s
capital city Jakarta is dominated by volcanic islands as a result of
Indonesia’s general structure. There are about 150 volcanoes in the most
extinct state. The country is on the Ecuadorian line. These mountain ranges are
extinguished and many volcans still active are involved.

 

Natural Resources

 

Indonesia
is a country with abundant natural resources that the Netherlands does not want
to give up as a colony at all costs. Important Resources are petroleum, tin,
natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold and
silver.

 

Politics

 

Indonesia
has a presidential system based on the presidential system. Parliament, the
460-member National Assembly is remarkable. Until 1967, Achmed Soekarno governs
the country under his presidency and then becomes Soeharto president. The
country has been administratively divided into 21 regions.

 

The
Golkar party, which dominated the country for many years in the 1999 elections
and was in power by itself, reduced the vote rate from 74.51% to 22.46%. Later,
after the constitutional reforms between 1999 and 2002, the regime underwent
drastic changes. Among them, the president and vice-president, who will serve
no more than twice in five years, were directly elected by the public.
According to the Constitution, the Peoples’ Advisory Council, which is at the
highest level, was put down to the level of other institutions affiliated to
the Constitution and elected president.

 

For
the first time in 2004, he was elected by the president and his deputy and was
elected president of the Democratic Party’s Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono in 2004
and 2009.

Joko
Widodo, Jakarta governor, who was represented by the Indonesian Democratic
Struggle Party and supported by parliamentary minorities on 20 October 2014,
was elected president with 53.15%. For this reason, the task of Susilo Bambang
Yudhoyono, who had been relatively reluctant for 10 years, ended. However, the
parties supporting Widodo constituted only 40.88 percent of the vote in the
April 9, 2014 elections, held six months ago.

 

Economy

 

The
agriculture in the economy still has a strong weight. But since independence,
there has been significant progress in industry, commerce and trade, and these
progresses are continuing. Forest products are among the exporting countries.
The most grown agricultural product in the country is rice. The majority of
arable beings are in the Cava, Bali and Sumatra islands. This is the most
effective factor in population distribution. Tea, spices, tobacco, corn,
peanuts, sugarcane, cassava, potatoes, coffee, soybeans are important products.

 

In
forest products, it ranks second among the countries of the world. The forests
are under state control. Due to the increasing world economy, Indonesia has
increased its commercial and industrial relations with foreign countries and
started exporting over $ 100 billion a year. The most important factor of this
is the fact that the East Asian economies that have developed an extraordinary
development process are in the country. Relations with China and Japan give the
Indonesian economy a great boost. Although the operation of mines is more
beneficial for the country than the colonial modern giant, the economy still
depends on foreigners and needs foreign investments.

 

Petroleum
production, which is 50 million tons per year, is obtained by evaluating the
petroleum reserves of the country very little. The development of petroleum
refineries increases the daily production of oil. The oil is most likely
obtained from the Sumatra and Kalimantan regions. Half of the exports are oil.
After oil and natural gas production, the country ranks third among the world
states in the production of tin, the second order in mining production.
However, the industry has begun to establish itself once it has achieved
independence.

 

Petroleum
refineries, iron and steel industry, lacquer, cement, paper, k?nin, fertilizer,
weaving factories are increasing day by day. Salt production is the state
monopoly and the level that meets the needs of the country. The harbors are
suitable for the development of ships of every tonnage, and despite the fact
that the shipyards are developing day by day, the shipyards are insufficient.

 

The
most common problem in the country is electricity shortage. However, important
work has been done in this area in recent years. Machinery, electronics, weaving
and chemical industry are in development stage.

 

Refferances

 

1)
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/id.html

2)
http://www.new.indonesia.nl/index.php/en/country-profile/demographics

3)
http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/indonesia-population/

4)
https://www.indonesia-investments.com/culture/population/item67?

5)
http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/indonesia-population/

6)
https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/DataQuery/

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