The Caucasian students in public schools, and the group

The Asian American group falls victim to many forms of discrimination and stereotypes in the United States. Throughout history, Chinese immigrants were restricted from entering the United States in 1882, and other Asian immigrants who were able to enter the United States were excluded from the law and denied the opportunity of citizenship and naturalization. Much like the African Americans, Asian Americans were segregated from Caucasian students in public schools, and the group continues to face discrimination today in the college admission process. Lastly, the group is heavily discriminated in the workforce; they struggle with being hired or taking on leadership positions within jobs. The discrimination has led to negative consequences towards members of the racial group. These negative consequences include stress and mental health issues, pressure to study and work more, and strong feelings of inferiority and exclusion. With governmental and individual efforts, however, discrimination towards the group and all other minority groups can hopefully be combated.Introduction     Martin Luther King, Jr. once stated, “Our lives begin to end the day we become silent about things that matter”. Indeed, Martin Luther King, Jr. and other Civil Rights activists did not remain silent about Black rights, and the topic of improving the lives of African Americans gained widespread attention all across the nation. However, unbeknownst to many people, other racial minority groups also faced and continue to face discrimination and stereotyping because of their backgrounds. Hispanic Americans are discriminated in employment, Native Americans have had a history of being exploited and deprived of their lands, and Arab Americans are linked to “terrorist” stereotypes linked to the September 11 Attacks. Asian Americans, in particular, have a history of heavy discrimination in the past and continued discrimination in the present yet many Americans are unaware of it. This research paper will talk more about how discrimination was prominent in the past and is prominent today for Asian Americans in immigration, education, and the workforce. It will also explore the negative effects of discrimination towards the group and how it can be combated for prevention in the future. Discrimination in Immigration     Discrimination and hindrance of Asian immigration into the United States were prominent since 1882. According to an article published by the Public Broadcasting Service (2001), the Chinese Exclusion Act passed in the United States in 1882 was the first major law restricting immigration to the United States and the only law passed to prevent immigration on the basis of race. Prior to the date, Chinese workers who worked as miners, railroad builders, fishermen, etc. contributed to the unemployment and decreased wages of native-born Americans, so Caucasian citizens and government officials believed that this was a logical method of increasing their employment and “racially purifying” the United States. Based on information from an essay published by the Asia Society (2018), other Asian groups were also subject to discrimination; Japanese, Koreans, and Indians were fully excluded by law and denied the opportunities of citizenship and naturalization in 1924. Although they all came from separate countries and parts of the world, various Asian groups faced common conditions of exclusion and, and a whole, created an infamous history of hardships and bitter experiences when attempting to immigrate to and thrive in America. As stated in the article published by the Public Broadcasting Service (2001), it was not until the enactment of the Immigration Act of 1965, which eliminated previous national-origins policies, that large-scale Asian immigration to the United States was allowed to begin again after a hiatus of over 80 years. With the elimination of strict immigration laws, thousands of Asian immigrants were allowed to enter to the United States in families, and the growth of Filipino, Korean, South Asian Indian, and Chinese populations in the United States skyrocketed. However, although racially exclusive immigration and citizenship laws no longer exist today, the racial harassment, discriminatory legislations, and hardships that Asians faced in the past left deep scars and feelings of exclusion for Asians in a society that supposedly lays a foundation of equality and protection for all. Discrimination in Education    Secondly, discrimination against Asian Americans in the United States also exists in education. In a journal written by Joyce Kuo (1998), it states that Chinese Americans were victims of segregation in public schools between the time periods of 1850 to 1930 in San Francisco, California, which is connected to the famous issue of segregation of Blacks in public schools during that same time period. Desegregation in public schools did not occur until the decision in the court case Brown v. Board of Education to diminish the “separate but equal” doctrine, but, as most of the attention of desegregating public schools went towards African Americans only, most people are unaware of the fact that Asian Americans were also victims of segregation in public schools.  However, discrimination towards Asian-Americans in education is not just an occurrence of the past. Based on a poll conducted in a paper by the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (2017), 19% of Asian-Americans have personally experienced discrimination when applying to or attending colleges in the 21st century. With affirmative action, a policy that favors members of a disadvantaged group that suffered from discrimination, coming into play, certain minority groups such as African Americans are favored over the Asian American group in the college admission process even if Asian American students have comparatively higher test scores and better qualification. “Asian-Americans have the lowest acceptance rate for each SAT test score bracket, having to score 450 points higher than a Black student on the SAT” (Espenshade and Radford, 2009). Discrimination against the Asian American race specifically when trying to favor other disadvantaged groups has brought negative effects unto the Asian American student population, which range from stress and mental health issues, pressure to study more rigorously, a lack of trust in American institutions, and feelings of inferiority. With discrimination specifically pointed towards Asian Americans in receiving education, Asian Americans both in the past and present may believe that they are incapable of receiving quality education in America regardless of their efforts or the quality of their skill. Discrimination at Work    Lastly, discrimination and stereotypes against Asian Americans exist in the workforce. A poll conducted by the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (2017) states that 27% of surveyed Asian Americans have faced discrimination when applying for jobs and 25% have faced discrimination when being paid or promoted. In fact, when potential employers turn in job resumes, resumes with names that “sound” Asian are more likely to be discriminated against because of stereotypes of Asian Americans that exist, such as the stereotype that Asians cannot speak English properly. As a result, many Asian Americans had to resort to working in relatively low-paying unstable service sector jobs. According to an article written by Kim (2012), even educated pools of Asian American workers face discrimination as highly educated Asian Americans suffer from higher unemployment rates than similarly educated whites. This is due the stereotypical belief that Asian Americans lack the leadership potentials and communication skills required for certain jobs as Asian Americans are generally perceived to be passive, complacent, and incompatible for leadership. Because of this, an article written by Le (2009) states that Asian Americans are consistently underrepresented as mid-level supervisors and as executives in America’s workforce. With discrimination and stereotypes in the workforce still in play in the present, Asian Americans may feel a sense of inequality weighing down on their shoulders as they struggle to succeed with their qualifications and true potentials. With discrimination in the areas of immigration, education, and the workforce being prevalent for the race in the past and present and with negative effects being evident, possible measures can be taken to put a stop to Asian American discrimination and all other forms of discrimination.Conclusion    In conclusion, discrimination and stereotyping against the Asian American race have taken place in many forms in the areas of immigration, education, and the workforce. Asians were banned from immigrating to the United States, were segregated from Caucasians in public schools, have fewer chances of getting accepted into universities and being hired for jobs than other racial groups, and have suffered and continue to suffer from false stereotypes of being incapable of success. As a result, many Asian Americans have gained immense feelings of exclusion, inferiority, and inequality when the ideals of the United States supposedly emphasize the “American dream” that grants the freedom of opportunities for success based on diligence rather on racial background. Discrimination against Asian Americans, or any minority groups, should be combated in methods to give equality and civil liberties to all groups of society; no one group should reign superior or inferior to another, and all groups should have equal opportunities. This can be done by removing racial criterias for college admissions, granting more employment opportunities to all minority groups, and making individual contributions to eliminate false stereotypes and stigma surrounding the Asian American group. Asian Americans, a group that faces one of the most discrimination but is often underrated, should receive the same recognition and opportunities as African Americans and other minority groups that receive compensation for discrimination. The day that discrimination for all minority groups is diminished is the day that every American can enjoy the liberty and justice promised by the nation. 


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