The an opportunistic, gram-negative bacterial pathogen, are known for

The emergence and the release of the different
resistant strains in the environment are usually due to the biofilm formation
on various disinfectants and the mechanism involving drug resistance towards
various antibiotics. On the other hand, the ability of Pseudomonads to survive
under oxidative stress imposed by environmental hazards and antagonism
exhibition is from the pigment they produce. The increased resistance of
bacterial strains to antibiotics, germicides and other disinfectants gave way
in acquiring infections against susceptible agents. 1 The process of redox transformations plays a
key role as precursors into cellular materials, heterotrophic organisms which
catalyze the oxidation of organic carbon sources generating reducing power.
Between intracellular and extracellular environments, the exchange in fluids of
electrons aid the organisms to maintain a state of redox equilibrium
intracellularly, being a requirement for the stability and function of
biological macromolecules. 2

Sodium hypochlorite is the most selected
disinfecting agent for many microorganisms. Furthermore it is recommended by
the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and it is also considered to be a
non-irritating, good and efficient surface-disinfectant against wide spectrum
of organisms.3 But in healthcare facilities the
sterilization and disinfection guidelines suggested by CDC considers that
surfaces frequently touched by hands may possibly contribute to secondary
transmission by contaminated hands of health professionals or by medical
equipment contact which are subsequently used in patients. It is also
recognized that certain microorganisms that give rise to healthcare-associated
infections (HAIs) are resistant to common cleaning processes, persists for long
periods on surfaces under dry conditions and it can be transferred not only
through hands, but also by air in the environment.4  The
sodium hypochlorite antimicrobial effectiveness is based on its high pH that
interferes in the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane with irreversible
enzymatic inhibition, phospholipid degradation in lipidic peroxidation and biosynthetic
alterations in cellular metabolism. Its oxidation property promotes enzymatic
inhibition of bacteria by replacing hydrogen with chlorine. This inactivation
of enzyme can be noticed in the reaction of chlorine with amino groups (NH2-)
and irreversible oxidation of sulphydryl groups (SH) of the cystein bacterial
enzyme. Thus, sodium hypochlorite confers antimicrobial activity with action on
essential enzymatic sites of the bacteria promoting irreversible inactivation
of hydroxyl ions and chloramination action. 5

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Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic, gram-negative bacterial
pathogen, are known for their degradative abilities and resistance to a variety
of drugs. For the last 50 years, they are well-known to be one of the major
causes of nosocomial acquired infections especially those who are
immunocompromised patients. Thus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is termed as “hyena”
in the bacterial world because of its capability to produce various toxins due
to its virulence.6 7 8 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, being similar to most
heterotrophic bacteria, oxidize organic carbon sources via the activity of the
Entner-Doudoroff pathway and the citric acid cycle.2 Phenazine, which are compounds known to be
one of the important virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Furthermore,
they have inhibitory activity against other bacteria and serve as a signaling
molecule between cells.9 Pyocyanin (N-methyl-1-hydroxyphenazine),
a low molecular weight, Phenazine derivative and a toxin reductant, has
antibiotic activity against a wide variety of microorganisms. Originally, it
was known to be the metabolic waste product of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
that does not have any metabolic function. Subsequently, it was proven to be a
reducing active compound and has the ability to cross the membrane easily.1 The production of Pyocyanin showed its
inhibitory effects against many bacterial colonization and fungal growth aside
from its ability to resist various chemotherapeutic agents and microbes growth
inhibition. The cell cycle arrest and inhibitory effect caused by Pyocyanin is
related to it reducing properties and its ability to reduce molecular oxygen to
reactive oxygen species. This property contributes to the low level persistent
oxidative stress. 10

Due to the presence of impermeable outer
membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, treatment of infections becomes complicated
owing to its resistance mechanism. Thus, guidance in therapy must be
administered considering the patients profile due to the characteristic of
Pseudomonas aeruginosa being unsusceptible to the presence of one or more
antibiotics. For many years, it is recorded that there is still an increase in
the proportion and cases of bacterial pathogens being resistant to multiple
antibiotics and is being considered to be one of the popular issue globally
that have major public health problems.

Given the above stated facts, the goal of this
study is to determine the degree of resistance of the different P.aeruginosa strains to varying sodium
hypochlorite concentrations. With that purpose we aimed to: (1) compare the
amount concentration of sodium hypochlorite that will produce a reaction with
the different strains of Pseudomonas
aeruginosa; (2) determine how the different strains of P. aeruginosa neutralizes sodium hypochlorite consistent with its
survival; (3) evaluate the disinfecting efficiency effects of sodium
hypochlorite in order to enhance the hygienic conditions and prevent secondary
contamination inside the laboratory.


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