secondary stage in Jordan is important in
the student`s life. English language(Action Pack 12 Textbook) is
an obligatory subject that students have to finish before attending a
university. A content analysis of the reading questions will be performed to
determine to what extent these questions meet the high and low level of
thinking according to Bloom`s Taxonomy
of cognitive domain.
2. Research questions(statement of the problem ):
To what extent are the cognitive levels of the reading questions in the Action
Pack 12 book varied?
a. To what extent do the reading questions in
Action Pack 12 book lead students toward levels that acquire higher level
of thinking (HoT such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation?
b. To what extent do the reading questions in
Action Pack 12 book lead students toward levels that accure lower level of
thinking such as knowledge, comprehension ,
2. What is the 12th grade English
language teachers’ evaluation of the higher order thinking skills in the
reading exercises of Action Pack 12 textbook ?
3. Purpose and importance of the study:
current study aims to: Formulate a
checklist of criteria for evaluating HOTS and LOTS in the reading exercises in Action
Pack12 textbook.The importance of this study comes from the recommendations and
results from the past studies which conducted on the analysis of the questions
in textbooks including(lcala,
1971;Zaki, 1973 ;Abu Alaa, 1979;Black, 1980;Abu Halu, 1986; Asfur, 1988;
Roberson, 1988;Elsudidi,1998;Ibrahim,1998;Hiyagineh,1998; Alkataitbeh,2002 and others)
.This study aims at analyzing the content of Action Pack 12 reading
comprehension questions according to Bloom`s taxonomy and whether they aid students in developing cognitive
4. Significance of the study:
study may help the following:
To organize effective teaching learning environment by raising questions that
nurture students’ critical thinking abilities and understand the hidden
concepts / ideas .
To conduct training courses that revolve around enhancing critical thinking and
familiarizing the English language teachers with the effective ways for asking
questions underlying these concepts. In addition, they may work with teachers
to provide enrichment material that support HOTS.
designers: To inspire syllabus designers to modify, organize, and enrich
English language curricula with activities based mainly on developing HOTS .
5. Limitation of this study
study has the following limitations:
textbook Action Pack 12 which is intended for teaching 12th
grade in Jordan.
the Reading questions in the textbook.
`s taxonomy for analysing the questions from the reading in Action Pack 12
according to cognitive domain.
6. Definition of Related Terms
Action Pack 12 textbook :
The English language curriculum in Jordan is one of the basic and compulsory
school subjects.. It was presented to Jordanian schools to be taught from 1st
grade until 12th grade.
Bloom (1956) introduced a taxonomy for classifying questions and responses which has the six
levels or degrees:
Knowledge: recalling specifications;
Comprehension: describing in one’s words; Application: applying information to
produce results; Analysis: subdividing something to show how it is put up
together; Synthesis: creating a unique product; and Evaluation: making value
decisions about issues.(Hopper, 2009) indicated that the first three levels use
less-order thinking skills while the other levels three use upper-order
thinking skills .
Evaluation: It refers to
analyzing textbooks to find out their strengths and weaknesses andto promote
the improvement of it. In the current study, it aims at investigating the
availability and the treatment of HOTS.
SB (Student Book): It
is the book that presents the new language and provides activities for practice
and recycling. (ETB, 2007: 5). In the present study it is English for Palestine
WB (Work Book): It
is the book that provides students with additional practice for class and home
use. (ETB, 2007: 5).
Higher order thinking skills:
The ability to analyze, synthesize and to evaluate based on cognitive skills of
Bloom’s taxonomy which the researcher test by the content analysis card.
Analysis: It refers to the ability to break down a concept into its smaller
parts. This process may require students to categorize information related to
the text, guess meaning of word through context, recognize causes and effects,
infer the author’s attitudes, and/or compare between items related to a certain
Synthesis: It refers to
the ability to form something new or compile objects from separate parts. This
skill may require students to summarize texts, retell the material using their
own words, generate information related to the text, and/or predict events or
solutions related to the text.
Evaluation: It refers to
the ability to judge the value of certain objects. In this regard, students are
to express their opinions toward situations in texts, conclude themes of texts,
and/or recognize subjectivity or objectivity.
All the questions that come under the reading texts and start with: read and
answer, read and choose, read and classify, read and put ‘T’ or ‘F’, etc. They
are usually in lesson 3 and 4 of the English textbooks.
7. Limitation of the study:
This evaluative study is restricted to evaluating HOTS and LOTS in reading exercises according to Bloom’s cognitive domine in Action
Pack 12 book in both SB and WB.
2- The whole population of the proposed study
will be all the teachers of 12th grade in Sahab city only.
The study takes place in the scholastic year (2017 – 2018).
8. List of abbreviations:
English as a Second language
Higher Order Thinking Skills
Lower Order Thinking Skills
chapter is an introduction to the entire research work. It deals with the
background of the study, the statement of the problem, the research questions,
the study purpose and significance, the definition of terms, the limitations of
the study, and finally the abbreviations used in this study