Tamper Proof Birth Certificate
Abstract-As the digitalization is on extreme demand, everything needs to be digitize such as all important document like birth certificate, aadhar card, pan card, passports etc. In this work we present an efficient and more secure way of storing birth certificate by using most demanded technology till date “Blockchain Technology. Further this can be accessed from anywhere in the world by using an efficient protocol named “Inter Planetary File System-IPFS1. Introduction
Birth certificate is the most vital document for any human being which provides the identity of an individual which has no expiry date. According to UNICEF everyday around 3, 50,000 babies are born which is near about 127 million per year. 1
A single tree makes roughly 8333 paper 2 so to generate 127 million birth certificate it will require round about 15330 trees.
In this paper we present an efficient and more convenient way to store birth records using Blockchain technology with the help of IPFS protocol.
In 2008 Satoshi Nakamoto published whitepaper on Bitcoin the first digital crypto currency by using Blockchain technology which was the first digital assets to rectify the problem of double spending.
As the name suggests blockchain is chains of block in which each block is connected to every other block by means of hash function. Suppose a user creates block with some information, the hash function of that block will be generated. Upon creating second block, the block will contain the hash function of previous block and this continues thus forming series of called blockchain.
This blocks are distributed to all the participating nodes in that network. This is a big advantage of blockchain as no one can tamper the data because one has to alter data in all the distributed blocks which is nearly impossible at this moment.
As of march 2018 the blockchain size was 163 Gigabytesa, which means if a new user participates in Bitcoin blockchain he has to download 163 Gb data for further participating in Bitcoin network to mine bit coins.
Currently each block size in Bitcoin blockchain is 1 Mb b. As for now storing 1mb of data costs 1000$/block on main net of ethereumc which is very costly. So we need an alternative to reduce cost and store data efficiently where IPFS comes into the picture.
Inter Planetary File System
The most rising solution is IPFS created by Protocol Labs. It is a peer-to-peer protocol in which each node stores a collection of hashed file. When a file is uploaded to IPFS a unique hash value is generated. Now from anywhere on the earth the user has just to enter the unique hash value to retrieve file which is far better than current HTTP solution which stores file in a central server.
IPFS is a new way of Internet which will surely change the world of www in near future.
IPFS is very simple, the principle behind IPFS is ,Assume user A want to upload pdf file to the ipfsUser A uploads file to the IPFS and a unique hash value is generated
Now user’s A file is available over the IPFS
Now suppose user A wants to share his file with user B , user A will simply share his hash value with user B
User B will enter hash value provided by user A into IPFS network and user B can now retrieve the pdf from IPFS network.
But here comes a glitch, any user who has hash value of user A can access the document in IPFS network , so we can’t store sensitive data on IPFS. Since birth certificate is categorized into sensitive document we need extra security layer to store in IPFS.
Solution to this is rectified using Asymmetric Encryption.
When any user registers on IPFS they will be provided with two keys named Private Key as well as Public key.
This public key will be available to everybody as its name suggests and private key will only be available to the corresponding user.
Now if user A wants to share file with user B on IPFS , user A will encrypt the file with user B’s public key which is available publicly.
After encrypting user A will upload file to IPFS and a hash value will be generated.
Now user A will share its hash value to user B
User B downloads file using hash value given by user A from IPFS and now user B can only decrypt the file by its own private key as it was encrypted by user B’s public key.
No other user can decrypt the file until he haves user B private key.
2. System architecture
So till now we know what is Blockchain and IPFS. Also storing a huge data is not feasible in blockchain and we now know that IPFS is how much strong and reliable. So we are now going to use IPFS and blockchain to store birth record securely and can be available anywhere from the planet.
This is the structure of a blockchain.d
Now we all know that IPFS generates a unique hash value. So this hash value can be stored inside a blockchain. So now instead of storing birth document inside a blockchain, we will store birth record securely inside IPFS and the hash value generated from the IPFS can be stored inside a blockchain. Detailed procedure is mentioned below:
All the users in the network will generate a key pair aka private key as well as public key by using RSA algorithm. In this case parent will generate the key for their child.
Private Key will be hidden and public key will be available to all the users.
Now the body who generates birth record such as government will generate a birth record document consisting of name, date of birth, parents name etc.
The consulting firm will ask for the public key of the user (parent) to encrypt the file using asymmetric encryption.
After the encryption is performed, file would be stored inside a IPFS node which will generate a unique hash function.
Now store this hash value inside a block .The main advantage of this blockchain technology is now once a block is created it will replicate to all other user using this system. So now no one can tamper or generate a fake birth certificate which provides a huge security over the birth records.
This hash value generated from IPFS will be given to user (Parent) for further reference.
Whenever user wants to access its record he have to use this hash value to retrieve record from IPFS and since this is encrypted using user (Parent) public key, this can be easily decrypted using user (Parent) private key.
All the files are securely stored inside a blockchain which cannot be further tampered as each block is distributed to other various participating entities.
Easily retrieve the file from all over the world using IPFS technology.
Digitalization will save lots of paper.
4. Future work
This application only works for computers, so making this application available to mobile users will be the big work ahead.
Also remembering and storing all the keys and hash would be difficult, so to create an easy way by integrating keys to RFID or by integrating to biometrics would be challenging.
In this paper we proposed an efficient and convenient way of storing birth records using Blockchain and IPFS technology as well as securing file using asymmetric encryption.