Symbolic/modern Modern racism is a new form of racism

Symbolic/modern
Modern racism is a new form of racism, based on the different evaluation of the same attitude comes from two different people, for example one person is black and the other is white, this evaluation will based on their race, colour, ethnicity, religion. Like the inequality in treating black people because their history of slavery;black people have less opportunity then the white people in the social life. Modern racism is a clear rejection of certain groups because of their race.
Some scholars argue that in the US earlier violent and aggressive forms of racism have evolved into a more subtle form of prejudice in the late 20th century. This new form of racism is sometimes referred to as “modern racism” and it is characterized by outwardly acting unprejudiced while inwardly maintaining prejudiced attitudes, displaying subtle prejudiced behaviours such as actions informed by attributing qualities to others based on racial stereotypes, and evaluating the same behaviour differently based on the race of the person being evaluated. Some scholars consider modern racism to be characterized by an explicit rejection of stereotypes, combined with resistance to changing structures of discrimination for reasons that are ostensibly non-racial, an ideology that considers opportunity at a purely individual basis denying the relevance of race in determining individual opportunities and the exhibition of indirect forms of micro-aggression toward and/or avoidance of people of other races(“Racism”).
Subconscious biases
Subconscious biases racism is one of the aspects of racism; there are various definitions of subconscious biases racism, but we choose the most explicit definition that gives all the sides of what subconscious biases means.
According to “Racism” recent research has shown that individuals who consciously claim to reject racism may still exhibit race-based subconscious biases in their decision-making processes. While such “subconscious racial biases” do not fully fit the definition of racism, their impact can be similar, though typically less pronounced, not being explicit, conscious or deliberate.
Biological racism
Biological racism means that there is superiority among people based on their characteristics, physically or mentally.
Biological racism is based on the belief that biological inheritance transmits superior physical and intellectual characteristics. It would therefore be accepted that there are races whose intellectual or physical ability is above other races (“The 18 types”).
Sexual racism
Sexual racism is a type of racism; is very popular in the world because it is exists widely among people especially the women. It is the ignorance of certain person or group of people because they are different physically or mentally regarding other people.
Sexual racism consists in rejecting a person or group of people of a particular genre. Sometimes this type of racism can arise if the person has suffered some kind of physical or psychological damage. In general this racism usually occurs in women especially if they have been strongly injured or humiliated by a man(“The 18types”).
Racism for disability
Racism for disability means the rejection of certain type of people because they have a special case or a handicap, even denied them from participating in the social life, such as work, having friends, interacting with others…etc.
It would discriminate against all those people who have some type of physical or psychological disability, so that they are denied access to housing and employment, even keeping them in poverty (“The 18 Types”).

3.2.3. Reasons behind racism
History shows us the way
History plays an important part in the way how our lives will goes on. If we allow to ourselves to make the history control us, nothing will change, we have to learn from our past and from our ancestors ‘mistakes. Therefore, letting the bad ideas and the customs of the past to be more awareness in order to create a better future for ourselves and the next generation.
According to “Top 10 Reasons”, the irony that underlines human and world history is that history gives us an insight both into our glorious and shameful pasts. History acts as a guidance, which determines our future course of action. Hence, if history itself is misinterpreted and if we are not taught to learn a lesson from our predecessors’ mistakes, history shall repeat itself in its most retrogressive forms. The injustice done to the blacks and the torture inflicted upon them have been recorded over centuries.
Lack of awareness
Many efforts have been appeared by certain institutions and historical people to prevent racism in the world. One of the examples of struggling racism are Nelson Mandela and Maya Angelou, these characters play a fundamental role in fighting racism. They open the eyes of many people and raise their awareness on the effects and results of racism. These famous characters defend their rights and believed in themselves as they are. Otherwise, the reality is that racism and discrimination still exit till now.
We have read about Nelson Mandela and his Anti-Apartheid movement. We know that he has spent 27 years of his life in jail for the cause and recently his death captured a sizeable share of space in the world media. Will it be absolutely unjust to say that Mandela for majority of the people has been just a chapter in the textbooks? Things have changed for the better and The United Nations has taken steps to curb racism around the world. The hard reality though is that at ground levels racial prejudices still exist, even though genocide/widespread torture on racial grounds have been controlled by efforts of many such organizations (Top 10 Reasons ).
Mass media and popular culture
Media is integrated widely in the spread of racism all over the world. Concerning the advertisement, we can see injustice and forms of racism in the display of the advertisement. For example the advertisement of beauty creams reveals discrimination; prejudice against black people; there is sarcasm from the black skin. This can give us a strong evidence that racism is still alive till today in societies.
According to “Top 10 Reasons”, the fixation with fairness creams gives us enough reason to believe that we are a herd of white-obsessed individuals. The moment you switch on to your television sets, you will manage to catch a glimpse of the latest fairness product, with a white-washed face making tall claims of ‘revolutionising’ your life. This problem is not just restricted to South-Asian countries as advertisements all over the world harp on being fair in order to be called a ‘natural beauty’. An international human rights lawyer, ArsalanIftikhar was quoted saying recently that racism is alive and well in America. He tweeted against the defacing of a GAP advertisement featuring Sikh model WarisAhluwalia in a New York subway station. The company drew flak for the racial stereotyping they professed and had to apologise.
Fragmentation/Stratification of society
The system of classifying people into classes has a great effect on what happens in the world. It has negative sides; it creates division betweenpeople based on their colour, race, religion, ethnicity, social class. Therefore, this is what push someone to practice racial discrimination which can leads to creates tension in the relationships among people in the society.
Many people would argue that a classless/undifferentiated society leads to disorder and anarchy. It is true that such a proposition has its share of disadvantages but it is an undeniable fact that the hierarchy in our society is what propels a person towards practicing racial discrimination. A highly stratified society creates division between a ‘black/brown’ and a ‘white’, a Hindu, Muslim, Christian and Sikh, between a Caucasian and a Latino. Members of a particular group club together and detest any communication/mingling with members of another group. This effort can be read as a defence mechanism against ‘outsiders/invaders’. This in turn leads to unprecedented animosity among people and creates tension( “Top 10 Reasons”).
Political insinuation
Political insinuation is considered as one of the reasons of racism. The division of people according to certain characteristics is also integrated in the field of politics. In other words, also in the political side there is racism, discrimination, prejudice against certain people. Many people did not enter to the world of politics because of their colour, race, religion, social class, and other aspects.
The politics of divide and rule has been predominant in our social and cultural discourse for a long time. In an attempt to consolidate ones’ support among a certain section of people, politicians and our law-makers indulge in the politics of appeasement. Barack Obama broke many cultural and political barriers by becoming the first coloured President of the world’s most powerful country The United States of America(“Top 10 Reasons”).
The other
The word other is created for people whom different physically and mentally; they are not considered like the normal people. The production of the word other contributes in the downplay of certain humans and their importance in the universe. The word other is integrated in the system of division between people; one of the reasons behind racism.
According to” Top 10 Reasons”any person who is different from us in skin colour/habits/practices gets tagged as The Other. The art of Other-ization is often an attempt to validate ones’ own importance in the world order. Individuals seem to have nurtured pre-conceived ideas about the other. Anything that is unknown/foreign to us is treated as a mark of danger and threat. The racially different person is viewed with apprehension and distrust.
Intrinsic human nature
Intrinsic human nature is one of the reasons of racism, many people suffer from it; people struggle to overcome supremacy in society created by certain groups in order to make some people different from others in particular aspects. Humans are fighting to disposal discrimination and to be equal in the community.
Somewhere deep down, all of us suffer from an inferiority complex. In order to establish our supremacy, it has trickled down into our senses that we need to show others in a poor light. Racial segregation provides us mortals with this wonderful opportunity. By telling and making a group realize that they are racially inferior to others, one often feels a sadistic pleasure. The need of the hour is to get rid of such prejudices and treat everyone as an equal and competent fellow-being(“Top 10 Reasons”).
Upbringing
Parents are responsible of what their children react or respond towards someone of different race. Everything parents do; whatever the thing good or bad, their children willadopted and take it as a habit.
According to “Top 10 Reasons” parents have a significant effect on what their child believes and what they think. Every time the parent says or reacts harshly towards someone of a different race, they are giving their child a message that racism is the right thing to do. Hate comes from your family and is hard to change; it can also become a part of your personality and who you are.
Personal experiences
When people live a bad experience because of a certain person of different race; normally he will be careful when meeting other person of the same race, taking bad impression of that race; it is the human nature to survive in this world.
If someone from a certain race has assaulted you, you are more likely to have fear towards people of that race. This is normal; it is natural for people to react this way. It is the same as when a colleague or friend betrays you, you are likely to have an opinion on that person’s race or culture. It is hard not to be racist because of these experiences; it goes against your survival instinct (“Top 10 Reasons”).

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Stereotypes
Stereotype spread all over the world because of the media. Is one of the reasons that racism still exist till today in our society. The bad ideas that people adopt towards certain race fall under many causes; media, society, parents, are all participate in it.
According to “Top 10 Reasons”stereotyping is a common cause of racism. It is expressed through television, radio, internet, music and books. The result they have can make more people become stereotypes. When a person of a young age is exposed to stereotypes or to groups who are stereotyped they will assume that all are like this. Also, when a recourses it displaying a race in a negative way they will think the same way as stereotypes.
3.3. Conclusion
In this chapter we can see that racism has many definitions. However, the most popular one is that racism is the bad treatment and the prejudice against certain people based on their race and ethnicity. Today ,the term” racism ” is based on the idea that people can be subdivided into groups according to their race , ethnicity ,capacities, and social class ,until now racism is still exist in many countries , people are suffer from this phenomena .
Racism is one of the most issues in society which can affect our future , unfortunately nowadays , many cases of violence we can see as a result of racism, prejudice, towards different groups whether black , or stranger ,or any person which is different from that of oneself. Racism can be considered as a part of our human history since long time . Therefore, to make this phenomena disappear , we need awareness , and to stop plant the idea of racism into our consciousness and the consciousness of our next generation .In this chapter we can see that racism has many aspects each one define itself and also the reasons behind racism is much more considering sex,skin colour, religion…..etc.

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