Since made thousands of years ago. These cultures have

Since human existence, up to present time, every civilization has used wood and wood bi-products. Using our instinctual knowledge, past generations have created various and plentiful, useful, beautiful and decorative objects made from what nature has provided for milenia; wood. Examples of woodworking can be observed that were made by the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and Chinese. Most creations are still in the likeness of the condition as they were when they were made thousands of years ago. These cultures have been inhabiting the earth all around the world. Many ancient cultures practiced woodworking, not just one culture or one practice of woodworking. They all utilized many various styles and techniques of their own. The beginning of primitive weapons used for defense, hunting and tools can be traced back thousands of years ago. The tools were used for building shelters. Some creations had multiple uses, such as an axe. Axes could be used for chopping and cutting down trees but also for self defense from any danger or enemy. Archaeologists found a wooden club and digging sticks at the Kalambo Falls on the Kalambo River on the border of Zambia and Tanzania (1). Those discoveries were most likely for creating places as shelter and also breaking hard objects for food or tools as well as defending themselves. As our species continued developing their woodworking skills, they became more capable to kill animals for food, clear land for shelter or a different type of vegetation, build boats and wagons for less difficult transport, and create buildings and furniture for leisure. Woodworking and the skills it conjured eventually became an important methodology that led to the advancement of the many civilizations around the globe.In relation to woodworking, bars have become a popular lifestyle product of the subject. Just like chairs, benches, wagons, and other previous inventions created for leisure or simplicity of life, bars were also created. Throughout history, there have been many different names for public drinking spaces. In the colonial era of the United States, taverns were seen as an important meeting place for anybody and whatever business need be discussed. During the 19th century, saloons were very important to the leisure time of the working class (2). Even during present time today, businesses that use different names such as “tavern” or “saloon”, the place of business inside where the “bartender” works and serves customers, is called “the bar.” In several countries during the mid 20th century, the sale as well as consumption of alcoholic beverages was prohibited. These countries included Finland, Norway, Iceway, and the United States. Illegal bars in the United States were called speakeasies, blind pigs, and blind tigers (3). “The Prohibition”, as it was called in the United States, lasted from 1920 to 1933.  ‘Private ownership and consumption of alcohol were not made illegal under federal law, but local laws were stricter in many areas, with some states banning possession outright (4).’ This act made popular a growing belief during that time period, that alcohol was a major influence and cause of personal and social problems. Many believed the prohibition would solve these particular problems including crime, poverty, and violence. Even in present time, there are still legal restrictions on alcohol and drinking although these restrictions are not as strict. They include illegal underage drinking (age 20 and under), the minimum age to enter premises with alcohol being served as well as the minimum age for purchasing alcohol which is also age 20 and under. The legal age for drinking and purchasing alcohol legally is 21 years or older.The design of bars themselves is very particular but also very common among many in restaurants and lounges around the world. What makes each bar different are specific design altercations. These can include patterns, height, width, storage abilities, shape and various purposes for each different detail. All these characteristics make for a nearly unlimited combination of styles for a bar, making almost no-two bars exactly the same. Although there are some baselines and standards necessary to essentially make a real bar. These include some kind of footrest, whether it be a pole screwed to the face of the bar or a protruding face with a top, near the bottom of the bar. Another necessary feature is a counter for the guest as well as a counter for the bartender. The bartenders counter may either be built with the frame of the bar or added later using some kind of unattached but stationary countertops. Not all bars are straight. They are usually designed with multiple sides, up to 4 just like a square using 90 degree corners or smooth 45 degree shaped corners, with the bartender standing within the inside perimeter and the guest sitting or standing on the opposite side of the bars counter. Few bars are shaped into a circle or oval design with the same concept. Other essential designs include storage as well as disposal. Bars may have built in cabinets and drawers or they could be using unattached stationary storage which the bartenders counter would also be based on top of if that is how the bar is designed. Disposal is an important aspect of the design. Nobody will most likely want to be a guest at a dirty bar. Disposal designs can incorporate stainless steel sinks for cleaning, washing, or pouring unemptied drinks and glasses into for draining. The sinks could be built into the frame of the bar or added later as a station like the bartenders counter. For trash such as cans, bottles, napkins, and leftover waste, trash slots can be cut into the countertop leading to a garbage can. Another option would be a traditional-lone trash can, separate from the bar. The modern bar is made beginning with plans. Floor plans and elevation plans must be drawn up for the builder to get an estimate on amount of material and pricing as well as the expected finished look for the bar. Then the builder must collect all of the needed materials. Building the bar begins with the floor layout and bottom frame being made. Next step is establishing the bar walls with studs exactly like walls in a house and incorporating them into the bars bottom frame. The bars frame and almost all components that are built together, use screws. Finishing steps for a great look are sanding, coating, and cleaning or fixing any small imperfections.Materials include most of the basic raw wood materials such as 2×4’s, plywood, and hardwood. Other materials necessary for the creation of the bar are screws, wood glue for piecing together non-nailed parts, and finisher for the lasting look of the bar. A hardwood selection is the best option for a strong bar because it is more dense and can handle more wear and tear than other traditional types of wood. Since a bar is used mostly for beverages, a wood material selection that has properties best for wet or moist environments should be considered. Hardware is a very important part of the bars construction. The hardware is what makes the bar function smoothly and properly. This hardware includes hinges for all of the cabinets, drawer guides for the storage aspect of the bars design, and as mentioned before, screws for piecing together all of the wood and metal parts to make the bar complete. PVC is also considered hardware which works in sync with the drainage aspect of the sinks for the bar. The hardware needed for building a bar is limited to the minimum because the entirety of the bar is constructed from wood materials. Construction of the bar is made mostly with tools, whether it be hand or powered tools. Hand tools mostly come into the building process near the end when smooth finishes and fast touch-ups need to be made to make the bar a finished product. A majority of the construction of the bar is made using power tools. Power tools include a table saw, rip saw, router, sander, circular saw, drill, and a sawzall. A table saw and rip saw are mostly used for making large and simple straight cuts for the studs, frame, and large sheets of plywood. Routers make specific types of trim cuts that will be added to the design of the bar after most of the construction is done. Sanders smooth down any surfaces for a soft and comfortable feel, avoiding splinters of wood from protruding. Circular saws and sawzalls are important for making difficult and sometimes non straight cuts. A drill is used for screwing all of the wood components together to create the frame and some finishing touches of the bar. Hand tools cover hammers or mallets, sandpaper, chisels, squares, tape measure, and some kind of marker or pencil. A hammer and mallet can be used to hit materials into place evenly and easily without damaging the material. Sandpaper is needed for smoothing surfaces that cannot be accessed with a regular power sander. Chisels can be used to fix hard uneven surfaces or chip away defects in the material or finished product. The rest of the hand tools such as squares, tape measure, and a pencil or marker are needed to indicate specific points on materials that either need to be placed together or cut. Hand tools compared to power tools can be done by the price of the tool and the effectiveness. Hand tools are inexpensive whereas power tools come with a higher cost although they are capable of doing more work easily in less time. Safety comes into consideration with the use of almost all tools for building and constructing any product. Power tools are more concerning when it comes to safety because they operate with speed and power which can be very dangerous if handled improperly. Hand tools can also be harmful but the problems to be caused are much less likely since they are completely controlled by whomever is using the tool. The first step of safety is the knowledge of the tools themselves. Operators of the tools must know how the tool works, what the tool is used for, and how to best prevent accidents from happening with each particular tool. The second step is personal safety. This includes the proper eye protection, proper clothing and shoes, as well as the environment the user of the tool is working in. Eye protection is one of the most important personal safety factors. The eyes are the most easily damageable parts of the body and delicate. Proper eye protection should be worn over the eyes at all times in a construction area because when tools are in use, debris is common and can easily make its way into a person’s eye, possibly causing extreme damage. Clothing and apparel is also important. Loose clothing as well as jewelry and material items on ones body can get caught in operating machines and cause harm to either the person, machine, or both. Clothing close to the body should be worn when working, especially when using power tools. The environment is another factor in safety. Close and tight areas need more caution when working because people are closer and more likely to interfere with other operations going on around them. People working in tight need to be more aware than usual of what and who is around them and where. This is true for all work environments but when potentially dangerous machinery is being used, accidents are more severe.  Each of the bars designs has a purpose incorporated along with it; big or small. All bars have a specific guideline for what each of its characteristics were made for. Size and spacing is mostly about convenience when it comes to the properties of a bar. Spacing for guests is taken into consideration when planning how big a bar should be made, this includes length for the wanted amount of guest seating available. For example 30 inches is the most common length of bar space for one seated or standing person. Bar depth is planned out based on the wanted or needed amount of space for built in storage as well as countertop space for both the guest and the bartender. Smaller designs such as trim and style are established on however the builder wishes the bar to look and stand out. Overall, the design and development of bars is its own trademark among both subjects of woodworking and society. All former techniques and crafts of woodworking are used when a bar is being planned and constructed. Each advancement that has been fabricated through woodworking has brought bars to be their own style and unique creation. These advancements have led to the everyday use of bars around the globe for people looking to find a comfortable spot to visit for any of their own reasons whether it be a cold drink or a place for entertainment among others.  


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