Runnymeade- much of his reign reforming royal administration and

Runnymeade- Runnymede is a water-meadow alongside the River
Thames in the English county of Surrey, and just over 20 miles west of central
London.

Magna Carta- The Magna Carta is a charter agreed to by King
John of England at Runnymede on June 15 1215.

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Domesday Book- The Domesday book is a manuscript record of
the “Great Survey “of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by
order of King William the Conqueror.

Edward I- Edward I born on the 17 or 18 of June in 1239 and
died on July 7 1307 was King of England from 1272 to 1307. Before his accession
to the throne he was commonly referred to as The Lord Edward. He spent much of
his reign reforming royal administration and common law.

Henry II- Henry II born on March 5 1133 and died on July 6
1189ruled as count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of
Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and lord of Ireland. All were at
various times, he also controlled Wales, Scotland, and Brittany. Henry was the
son of Geoffrey of Anjou and Matilda daughter of Henry I of England.

John Lackland-John Lackland born on December 24, 1166 and
died on October 19 1216 was king of England from April 6 1199 until his death.
He lost the Duchy of Normandy to King Philip II of France, resulting in the
collapse of most of the Angevin Empire and contributing to the subsequent
growth in power of the Capetian.

Phillip Augustus-Philip II was King of France from 1180 to
1223 and was a member of the House of Capet. Philip’s predecessors had been
known as kings of Franks, but from 1190 onward, Philip became the first French
monarch to style himself “King of France”. The son of King Louis VII and his
wife, Adele of Champange, he was originally nicknamed Dieudonne “God-given”
because he was the first son of Louis VII born late in his father’s life.

Harold Godwinson- Harold Godwinson was the last Anglo-Saxon king
of England. Harold reigned from 6 January 1066 until
his death at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October, fighting
the Norman invaders
led by Conqueror during the Norman conquest of England. His death
marked the end of Anglo-Saxon rule over England.

Bayeux Tapestry- The Bayeux Tapestry is an embroidered cloth
nearly 70 metres long and 50 centimeters tall, which depicts the events leading
up to the Norman conquest of England concerning William, Duke of Normandy, and Harold, Earl
of Wessex, later King of England, and culminating in the Battle of Hastings. It is thought to date to
the 11th century, within a few years after the battle. It tells the story from
the point of view of the conquering Normans, though is done in an Anglo-Saxon
art style, and treats the soldiers of the defeated side with
respect.

Edward the Confessor- Edward the Confessor was among the
last Anglo-Saxon kings of England. Usually considered the last king of the House
of Wessex, he ruled from 1042 to 1066. The son of AEthelred the Unready and Emma of
Normandy, Edward succeeded Cnut the
Great’s son – and his own half-brother – Harthacnut,
restoring the rule of the House of Wessex after the period of Danish rule since
Cnut conquered England in 1016.

Plantagenet- The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which
originated from the lands of Anjou in France. The name Plantagenet is used by modern
historians to identify four distinct royal houses – the Angevin who were also Counts of
Anjou, the main body of the Plantagenets following the loss of Anjou, and the
houses of Lancaster and York,
the Plantagenets’ two cadet branches. The family held the English
throne from 1154, with the accession of Henry II, until 1485, when Richard III died.

Exchequer- The former government office responsible for
collecting revenue and making payments on behalf of the sovereign, auditing
official accounts, and trying legal cases relating to revenue.

Oath of Salisbury Plain- The Oath of Salisbury refers to an
event in August 1086 when William I of England summoned his tenants-in-chief and
“landowning men of any account to William I, ‘The Conqueror'” to Old
Sarum where they swore allegiance to him and to be faithful against all other men.

Common law- Common law is that body of law derived from
judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals. The defining characteristic
of “common law” is that it arises as precedent.

Thomas a Becket- Thomas Becket was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162
until his murder in 1170. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by
both the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. He engaged in conflict
with Henry II, King of England, over the rights and
privileges of the Church and was murdered by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral. Soon after his
death, he was canonized by Pope Alexander III.

Parliament- In modern politics and history, a parliament is
a legislative, elected body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has
three functions: representing the electorate, making laws, and overseeing the
government via hearings and inquiries.

Louis IX- Louis IX was crowned in Reims at
the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII the Lion, although his
mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom until he
reached maturity. During Louis’s childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition
of rebellious vassals and put an end to the Albigensian crusade which had started 20
years earlier.

Philip the Fair- Philip IV was King of France from 1285 until his
death. By virtue of his marriage with Joan I of
Navarre, he was also Philip I, King of Navarre from 1284 to 1305. He
also briefly ruled the County of Champagne in right of his
wife, although after his accession as king in 1285 the county
remained under the sole governance of his wife until her death in 1305, and
then fell to his son Louis until
Philip’s own death in 1314, after which the county was finally united to
the crown lands of France.

Estates general- In France under the Old Regime, the Estates
General or States-General was a legislative and consultative assembly of the
different classes of French subjects.

3. Consider the French and English kings of the 11th 12th
and 13th centuries. Describe the actions taken by each to
strengthen the power of the kings over powerful feudal
lords. Evaluate their effectiveness as monachs.

One of the most powerful Capetians was William II (1028–1087),
the duke of Normandy. He expanded his territory by crossing the English Channel
and launching the Norman conquest of England (1066–70). Crowned King William I
of England (ruled 1066–87), he introduced French language and culture into that
country. The Capetians gradually extended their control over the duchies of
France during the eleventh and early twelfth centuries. Especially strong kings
were Louis VI (1081–1137; ruled 1108–37) and his son Louis VII (c. 1120–1180;
ruled 1137–80). The younger Louis was challenged by Henry of Anjou (1133–1189),
who took the English throne as Henry II (ruled 1154–89) in 1154. At that time
he was feudal lord of a greater part of France, including Normandy, Brittany,
and Anjou in the northwest and Aquitaine in the southwest. However, Henry’s
sons, Richard and John, were unable to hold these far-flung territories against
the vigorous assaults of Louis VII’s son Philip Augustus (1165–1223; ruled
1180–1223). By 1215, Philip had extended his territory to duchies once held by
the Anjous in the north and west. Philip’s grandson, Louis IX (1214–1270; ruled
1226–70), had a long reign. He firmly established the strength of the monarchy
by enforcing his royal powers. The reign of Louis’s grandson, Philip IV (1268–1314;
ruled 1285–1314), marked the supremacy of the French monarchy. Philip the Fair
quarreled with the popes over control of the French clergy and other aspects of
the monarch’s sovereignty. When the popes would not give in to Philip’s demands
he resolved the situation by having his agents arrest Pope Boniface VIII (c.1235–1303;
reigned 1294–1303). After Boniface’s death in 1303, Philip succeeded in having
the seat of the papacy moved from Rome, Italy, to Avignon, France. The popes
remained in Avignon under French domination until 1377, during a period called
the Babylonian captivity. In 1328 his nephew, Philip VI (1293–1350; ruled
1328–50), took the throne as the first king from the Valois family, a branch of
the Capetians. Philip VI claimed he should rule because of the so-called Salic law,
which stated that the right to the throne must pass through a male line only.
Philip reasoned that since there were no longer any Capetian male heirs and
since he was related to the Capetians through the Valois line of the family, he
had the right to be named king. Philip was challenged by Edward III (1312–1377;
ruled 1327–77) of England, whose mother was the daughter of Philip the Fair. In
1337 Edward claimed the right to the throne through his mother’s line ignoring
the Salic law and named himself king of France. As a sign of his authority he
had lilies, the official symbol of France, painted on his shield.

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