RATIONALE of the policy (masses or end users) during

RATIONALE

          Housing is a very important  social need in any place and an important way
of expressing  the culture of living. It  is the most obviously seen feature which  represent a significant aspect  of a country and speaks volume about it
development.  Developing countries across
the globe are known to be challenge in the aspect of housing which has caused the
importance  housing is supposed to
portray if properly provided to be nullified. This is so due to certain issues relating
to Housing policy. The seemingly inappropriate 
process of policy making has been of great influence and pivotal to it failure
during  implementation stage.

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          Housing  shortage in Nigeria has been a reoccurring
problem since time immemorial and in spite of the several changes and
amendments made on Housing policy  over
the years, there  seems to be no improvement
on the situation  as people are
continually  faced with the challenge of
poor housing and housing shortage  across
the nation on a yearly basis. In the year 2012 Nigeria was estimated to have an
housing deficit of 17million.This is evident with the development of slum
settlement at the core of the cities across the nation and the sprawling of  houses that are not fit for living across the
nation which in some way  has turned some
places into an eyesore. This is traceable to certain factors not been  put into consideration in the policy
making  and  implementation process of the policy cycle.
Considering the present situation, this has triggered  my interest in researching  into this area. This research  therefore will aim at identifying the problems
that has made  Nigerian Housing policy
not to thrive over the years which  would
be carried out to examine the basic problems faced by the Nigerian housing
policy as pertaining to it effective delivery in Nigeria. Matters like
considering the targeted beneficiaries of the policy (masses or end users)
during the policy making and implementation process will be  delve into and  what the impact of adopting  such will have on the successful delivery of
the housing policy. It aim to undertake this assessment  by taking two states  ( Oyo State and Osun State) in the
South-western part of the Country as case studies using both quantitative and qualitative
methods of research  . Interviews and
case studies will  be conducted and
carried  out in the two locations.  This two 
locations will serve as a benchmark 
for evaluating and assessing the  problems of housing policy  as the policy is the same across the nation. It
also aim at proffering  possible
solutions that will help to augment the problems identified.

 

LITERATURE REVIEW

Housing

Jean(2001
pg.1), shelter , water and food are generally accepted as the basic needs of
life. Housing  therefore  is considered  a fundamental 
need that provides shelter.  It  is regarded as a major fixed asset which
brings about considerable flows of money into and out of the housing  sector. It collectively refers to the houses
and building, accommodation of people and planning as well as  provision of accommodation by an authority. It
is a very good key indicator and a measurement tool of  the level of development of  a particular place as well as an economic
buster. It is usually considered a good tool for measure the level of
advancement of a particular place. Therefore , it is considered a  developmental yard stick of a  country’s economy at large.

 

Policy

Colebatch
(2002), considered  policy as  first of all 
a concept- that is an idea that people use in making sense of the world.
It is a general concept in both the analysis and the practice of the way we are
governed and  the process involved in the
government. It is not simply a label, but part of the process which it
describes which gives both the observer and participant a useful control of the
process as well as a way of making sense of the complexity of the governing.

Colebatch
further attests that the process of policy  involves not simply the pursuit of shared
goals, but the more difficult task of making  a basis for collective action among
participants who may have quite diverse views on the nature of the task. He
regarded the concept of policy has been central to ones understanding of the
way we are governed. The impact of the government on the welfare of the people
is discussed as social policy.

He
poses further that if policy has to do with governing, it would be easy to
assume that it is essentially about government. Instrumentality , hierarchy and
coherence underlies a framing of the world in which ‘governing ‘ , ‘government’
and  policy run into one another.
Therefore , three basic attributes are typical to policy: they  are Order , authority and expertise. Firstly
it is  concerned with order which implies
systems and consistency. The action is not an arbitrary one rather, it is
governed by a known formula of universal application which in this way sets
limits on the behaviour of officials and simultaneously frees them from the
need to make choices thereby, drawing a range of activities into a common framework.
Colebatch (2002).

 

Policy , Governing and Government

In
the light of what policy is, the activity of government is seen as choosing
goals to solve problems, and policy and public policy become almost inseparable.
Government decide what policy objectives are. Therefore  policy is what government decide to do ; policy
must therefore be public and  just as it
involves governing, likewise it  has
styles which are in different dimensions and aimed at certain objectives. Policy-
makers seek to reach a general agreement, they respond to problems, they seek
to enforce decision and they  expects
problems.(dimension s of policy styles). The concept of policy reflects
particular values which are  instrumental
rationality and  legitimate authority.
Its presents  action in terms of the
collective pursuit of known goals, so that it becomes stable and predictable
and it sees this goals as being determined by some legitimate authority. In
doing this policy both explains and validates the action: it explains what
people are doing and it makes it appropriate for them to do it. So it is not
simply a descriptive term: it is a concept in use, and  a clear knowledge of  understanding the way in which practitioners
use it to shape the action. It is regarded as  a concept in use for observers which is used as
a way of interrogating organised activity- particularly, but not exclusively,
in relation to public authority.

 

History Of Housing  Policy In Nigeria

In
several developing countries , housing shortage/deficit has being on the
increase despite the amount of policy made over the years. Not that this policy
are not good enough to solve the various housing problems peculiar to each
countries , but over time certain factors has been seen to have undermined the
efficacy of this policy. Nigeria as a developing Country is no exception to
this same problem. Housing policy in Nigeria has transcend and pass through
several changes over the years. The policies has underwent  several 
changes over four significant periods which are the Colonial, Post
independence, Second Civilian administration , Post Second Republic period up
till the present date (Enems 2015).

The
colonial period is known for housing activities with policy focusing more on
the  provision of Private
residential  quarters for selected
indigenous staff in some specialised profession like police,  railway 
e.t.c This marked the advent  of
Government Reserved Areas which has  a
general intent of  providing  liveable houses and atmosphere for the
foreigners. The houses was  then designed
in a  similar way to the kinds available
in the foreigners countries. The housing quarters are well furnished and
landscaped with  plantings around to
beautify the environment.

The
second significant change to the 
Nigerian housing policy  occurred
in the Post-Independent period which was  between 1960 to 1979.This  was based on a five-yearly developmental plan
targeted at increasing the economic growth of the country. In this plan, the
first two plans almost neglected  housing
policy which later developed into further deterioration of housing situation.
The third plan which was between 1975 and 1980 paid more attention to  housing  sector. This led to the identification of  housing problems by the government  with the aim of providing necessary solutions.

The
second Civilian  administration which was
between (1980-1983)  was known to have
showed more interest in the housing 
sector. Then special allocations of 1.9 billion Naira were given to each
state in the nation for construction of houses 
which eventually ended up to be a failure. It ended up producing 600
houses across the Federation which amounted to 20 percent of housing delivery.
The period was further followed with continuous 
urban housing deficit and worsening of the housing condition in the
rural areas. As unsuccessful as the policy 
was, it was beneficial to certain low in-come earners whose yearly
income did not exceed Eight thousand Naira. This phase of the program couldn’t thrive
well in all the state of the nation which eventually marked the end of the  policy. However it resulted into a new outlook
on housing issues which later marked the beginning and formulation  of the  National housing policy.

In
the post second Republic period of the policy, activities relating to housing
was initially not considered. It was at this stage that the Federal Government
was engaged with the preparation of a new and more productive national housing
policy. This policy was eventual finalised and launched in February 1991. Since
this time, it has become be put to use as the concise mode of operation for its
implementation have been put in place. This however failed as well in meeting
its goals and objectives. This then was followed  thereby leading to in-depth review which was
then tagged Housing and Urban development in 2002.

The
major consideration of the new housing and urban development policy was
cantered on the quantitative housing needs of the various cities . With the aim
of financing this through mortgages. It 
later went through revision in 2004 which includes the means of housing
provision and the institutional framework for it. This means involved the
restructuring of existing structures and creation of new ones.

 From the brief History of the early housing
policy, it can be deduced that certain factors were not considered. Most of
this policies when made  did not consider
the role of the community in the planning stage they were basically  made to enrich the pockets of the people in
power and as well as not meeting the needs of the masses. The policy has been
one sided which targeted specific set of people.If end users or communities are
involved in the policy making and implementation process can it probably bring
about a significant change in  reducing
the number of housing deficits.?

 

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.  
Can
the active implementation of housing policy help in solving housing shortage
/deficit in Nigeria?

2.  
Should
the populace /end users be involved at the planning stage of policy making?

3.  
Can
their active participation help in  influencing decision the outcome of the
decision made on policy?

4.  
Can
their  involvements in the implementation
process bring about better output in the delivery of the policy?

AIM

The
primary aim of the research is to identify housing policy problems in
Developing countries from an historical perspective with Nigeria as case study referencing
 two 
State :Oyo and Osun in identifying the impacts of the various
stakeholders in the poor implementation and delivery of housing policy over the
years.

 

 

OBJECTIVES

1.  
To
investigate the factors that have contributed to poor policy implementation in
Nigeria.

2.  
To
examine the weakness and strength of the existing policies on housing delivery
as perceived by the beneficiaries/end users.

3.  
To
investigate the extent and challenges of involving stakeholders/ communities in
policy making process.

4.  
To
make recommendations on how  the
implementation of policy could be improved.

5.  
To
investigate the role of public private partnership with regards to housing
delivery.

 

RESEARCH DESIGN

The
research will approach the survey by using both qualitative and quantitative
methods of research with more emphasis on qualitative methods. It  will be  designed to follow  a structured duration which would be divided
into  different Phases structured under
scheduled timeline.

 

Research Methods

The
study will use both Qualitative and Quantitative methods of gathering data for
the research. The qualitative involve conducting interviews through one on one
contact, mail, telephone, human observation and case studies data will be  gathered by studying  available internal and external sources, such
as policy documents , journals, dissertation and books relating to housing and
housing policies in  Nigeria.

The
quantitative aspects of the study will utilise open-ended questionnaires.

The
qualitative  aspect of the research will
make use of  interviews and focused group
discussions  with  the various stakeholders (provider and end
users) of the  housing policy. The
research will also examine various reports presented by th

 

Interviews: This
will involve interrogating, grilling and evaluating  certain persons as regards to their opinion
and questioning their knowledge in the research area. In this I will not be
able to personally get involved in the interview due to location and travelling
constraints. Therefore I planned working alongside and delegating the duty to a
 colleague of mine  to whom I will take time to explain the scope
of the research so as to help conducting the interview with the selected
persons. In total, an average interview of 5  people will be planned for each state that
will be  use as case study making a total
of 10 interviews to be conducted.

 

Selection Of Participant
For The Study.

The
choice of participant for the survey will be carefully selected through
sampling method. Which is refers to the process of selecting respondents for a
interview in research.

Three
methods of sampling will be used in this survey which include:

 

 

Purposive method of
Sampling: This will target those that are knowledgeable  and learned in the research area and will
deal more with the stakeholders involved in the policy making cycle such as
Directors of Ministry of housing, Architects, Town planners, Local Government
officials e.t.c

Stratified Method Of Sampling: This
will involve selecting men and women who falls into the category of end users
of the housing policy.

 

Incidental or opportune
method of sampling:  This
will aim at targeting any available person ready and interested to be
interviewed on the choice of topic.

 

Questionnaires: Questionnaires
will be administered to ask and evaluated the populace of their opinion about
the current housing state of the country. Which will include taking a survey on
knowing the type of house they are living in, when they have been living there
and where they wish to live in. Other question pertaining to their perception
on housing will be asked which will help in gathering relevant information
needed for the research.

 

Data analysis.

Data
gotten from questionnaires will be transcribed and statistically analysed using
special computer packages such as spread sheets and SPSS. Findings from
interview will be tabulated manually before coding and categorising the
responses from the participants. This will then be followed by final and
thorough interpretation of findings.

 

Research Schedule

Timing
is  vital in every research as every
research has  a designated  start and end date. In order to meet up with
the time scheduled for the whole research, a systemise order of timing against
activities will be followed. The research will span through  a duration of four months in which activities
will be divided under set times under which the steps and procedures to be used
in the design will be analysed. This will also be aided with periodic scheduling
of meeting with my supervisor depending on what was agreed upon.

 

Phase 1: December
18- January 18 2018

 

Literature review:
The first part of the research will be devoted to in-depth reading and sourcing
of materials, books, published and unpublished  literatures, articles, journals, policy documents
and past works that has been written  that are relevant to the field of study. The
first two weeks of the research will be devoted to this which will help in building
a robust body of knowledge on the research topic. Thereby establishing a  basis for justifying the aim of the project
and how the stated objectives might have an influence on the identified
problems.

 

 

 

 

Phase 2: January
18 -Febuary18 2018

 

Case study:
This will involve  further studying
literature on the specific State chosen as case studies after which a
First  draft  of the dissertation will be written and will
be given to my supervisor for proof reading for correction.

Phase 3: Febuary18-March
1  2018

 

Preparation of interviews
and questionnaires: Questions for questionnaire and interviews
will be composed. After wish they will be administered.

 

Phase 4 : March 1 -March 18 2018

 

Analysis of data

Data
gotten from the interviews and questionnaires will be coded and analysed. At
this stage, a second draft of the research will be written for further proof
reading.

 

 

Phase 5: March
18 -April 2018

 

The research.

Final
research draft.

 

Relevance  To Architecture.

This
research on identifying the problems of housing policy in Nigeria and proffering
possible solutions  will have a great
impact and contribute immensely to the field of Architecture. As housing is
generally  considered as a  very significant aspect of Architectural discipline,
which covers a wide range of scope that helps to contribute to the overall  outlook of a place at large, a proper study
of the problems of what causes lesser availability of houses to the populace will
not only help in providing solution but also help in providing a platform for
the beautification of the built environment. Urbanity as an important aspect of
Architecture is determine by the amount of structures put in place: bulk of
which are houses. If housing policies are not faulty and properly implemented, expected
deliveries of houses will be achieved, which will foster urban growth by making
more affordable homes to be provided. This therefore will serve as a base, assign
function and finally gives essence and role to Architects by making available
more projects for them to work on. This research will not only help providing
jobs for Architects but also make them aware of their roles of been activity
involved and been part of the stakeholders in the policy making cycle. Finally,
the research will help in contributing to the body of knowledge in the study of
Housing policy in Architecture thereby serving as a reference material for
future research in related field.

 

 

REFERENCES:

ANASTASIA, K. 2016. Affordable Housing
Policies: An Overview. Cornell real estate Review. 14(1),pp.77-83.

 

ARIBIGBOLA,
A.,2008.Housing Policy Formulation in Developing Countries: Evidence of
Programme Implementation from Akure, Ondo State-Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology 23(2), pp.125-134.

 

BRAIN,L.,2002.Housing Problems and Housing Policy. United
Kingdom: Longman.

 

COLEBATCH,
H., 2002.Policy.2nd ed. New York:
McGraw-Hill Education.

 

ENEMS, L.,2015.The review of housing policy of the Nigerian Government. Enems
microsystem Research.online16 November 2015. Available from: http://enemsmicro systresearchspot.blogspot.co.uk/p/blog-page_7.html#.
Accessed 9 November 2017.

 

JEAN,
C., 2000.Housing policy. United
kingdom: The Gildredge press Ltd.

 

MOHLASEDI, K. and NKADO, R.,(1997) The role
of stakeholders in the delivery of affordable housing schemes in South Africa. In:
Stephenson, P (Ed.), 13th Annual ARCOM Conference, Association of Researchers in Construction
Management 2, pp.633-42.

 

RICHARD, F. and ANITA, L.,1997.Research Methods for construction.2nd
ed. United kingdom: Blackwell Publishing.

 

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