OVERVIEW and relationship between the states. The development of


As many scholars,
intellectuals and journalists claimed “this
year of 2045, constitute the year of change and new step with large-scale has
begun”. The world has experienced since the last 25 years a significant
impact on the competitivity, occasionally cooperative and relationship between
the states. The development of the technology has reached its highest level
leading therefore to a phenomenal economic, political and social success to
some countries while it has depressed some others. What is more, it is a time
that the African continent has became a new role model that representing a new
challenge in the global system. Djibouti, an eastern African country member of
this continent continues to play a leading role thanks to its complex geographical
situation but also being located to a region that is home to international
terrorism (namely the growing radical’s groups from Yemen, and Somalia).

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The purpose
of this paper is to examine the numerous challenges, threats and opportunities
a changing environment presents to the government of Djibouti. It will attempt
also to suggest the different policies suitable based on the growing global influence,
the vulnerabilities that existing and also the economic growth. In order to
understand what is really going on, we should have to explain how the situation
is affecting the values and the survival of the country, and its population.


1.      SET OF

In an
area of globalization, security is a keystone of development and improvement to
any states. Moreover, the world is undergoing toward rapid transformation year
after year which are as deep as constant. For the government of Djibouti
ensuring a strategy that defines a global and all-embracing frame of reference in
security matters, a strategy that envisages the unique characteristics of the
risks and threats or a strategy that orients State’s action
towards responding to current challenges by using the available resources
flexibly and efficiently are fundamental for their survival. In the same time,
the security of the world is characterized by unprecedent challenges, risks and
threats resulting from many interrelated factors which have a greater level of complexity.
Furthermore, the continent has been the focus of the international community
not only because of its spectacular development that attract the old superpowers
such as the United States and the Europeans as well as the emerging states namely
China but also the African continent imposed itself as the new “Eldorado”. This situation has a
national, regional and international repercussions for the government of
Djibouti as well as the others nations part of the continent. By taking into
account all this variation, the regime must be based on a comprehensive and
integrated approach that allow for active participation and be implemented in
the spirit of solidarity. More importantly, to prevent or even responds to any
type of threats but also to ensure the persistence of the state, it is vital to
build up a security policy that encompasses all of the measures at national,
regional and international level. The most central features of this approach

A fundamental and far reaching
comprehension of the significance of security as an assurance of nationals’
prosperity and the strength of the State itself is along these lines basic.

Actively working in the representation or
the participation of the Djibouti government in securing the plethora issues of
the region as well as creating a peaceful international arena.

providing the sufficient effort to secure all this significant value, the state
will be secure against any risks but will need a strong and determined society.


the past few years, the world has not just witnessed new discoveries and inventions
in science and technology that has shaped the way in which globalization used
to influence but it has showed that this was more likely the leading factor. In
addition, the internet, the artificial intelligence and genetic engineering transformed
the international environment. Thus, the evolution of the human being into another
level of existence has become more realistic vision. Indeed, the system in
which the world was made for is getting complex, difficult with tremendous
consequences such as ecological catastrophes, social change, economic transformation
but also increasing the fear that this technology will go into the hand of the
wrong people (namely the terrorists’ groups). As Gerald Doucet, World Energy Council
has clarified that this situation confused the question of “who is maintaining
a leading position in global competition”. This rapid progress is only
reinforcing the countries who have been active in the globalized context. On the
one hand, the United States with its traditional position and the role in decision
making, planning has evolved into new phase. With the subsequent change of the
world that has affecting the economy, politic and social sphere, they are still
able to maintain their position of a principal actor who can achieve numerous
things. Moreover, the concern of the American administration toward Africa is
part of the widening of their policy in this area of large-scale innovation. Partnering
with the states of this continent will allow a diversified export strategy that
has been made since ages but also to contribute the weakness of China investments,
another actor that is holding a great influence in the market of the continent,
and that could threaten the survival of the U.S. On the other hand, China has been
in the centre of attention since their rise over the past years. Thanks to
their economic growth, and their military capacity they are imposing their will
on the world, and pose a fear to the United States. It is fundamental to renew
its capacities and adapt it to the current situation of the world by developing
their technology skills and allowing their policymakers to ensure the dynamic spot
in the international realm. The rise of China in Africa has started since three
decades and has displaced Africa’s traditional partners, like the U.S and the
European. As a result, the exports of China have increased considerably and
making the continent a major source of investments and trade activities. In fact,
the African continent turned not only to a place of development, innovation in
different categories explicitly in the economy and the politics fascinating the
world but it has also brought new challenges that are consequential of the foreign
interference. Hence, by making the environment more vulnerable to multiple
issues. Therefore, the administration of Djibouti is conscious about the alarming
circumstances that the universal is going through. The objectives for implementing
a security policy responding to the environment are to make Djibouti the safest
country with the highest quality of life, enable the citizen to live in security
and freedom but also to effectively take a vibrant part in national as well as
regional level. In order for the state to protect the territorial integrity, guarantee
the well-being of its citizen and ensure the continuity of the nation, it has
to define a strategy that enhance the anticipation, protection and response
capabilities in an increasingly complex environment like today. With all these
problems, national events or regional can have a global repercussion and represent
a risk of the individual security. Located in the East of Africa, a region
which lies at the mouth of the Red Sea that has made the country an ideal
transhipment hub for the international trade and offered long-term potential
growth. The government have to deal with numbers issues to reach its goal. At the
national level, the major concern must be based on the safeguarding of the stability
within the country, and to formulate a smooth, well-prepared agenda that has to
engage and empower the Youth and their families in becoming current and future
generations. Thus, this National security is the critical next step in facing
that challenge. At the regional and international level, the situation is
getting more intricate. The strategic position in which the country is located
has created a feeling or a longing vis a vis of their neighbours in the region
that sometimes is expressed in the form of diplomatic crisis (the case of MAERSK
during the spring 2023 has opposed the government of Djibouti to Eretria). The intrusion
of some powers such as the U.S. to limit the Chinese impact in the region, but
also to conduct certain actions against the radicalism of groups in Yemen and
Somalia under their counter-terrorism program. Lastly, advancing all sectors of
the country is part of the purpose of this National security. Whether in the economy,
ecology or social field, the government is committed to strengthen their
capacity and move it forward. Cyber-security and military development require
to improve the position of Djibouti in the international environment by operating,
collaborating with the whole region but also the international powers such as
U.S., China and the United Nations.


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