Organic and inorganic hybrid materials have the advantage of organic and inorganic materials. Modification of this type of hybrid material gives special properties 1-3. By adding inorganic compounds into organic host matrix, a matrix of organic and inorganic materials can be obtained3.Owing to their unique chemical, optical and electrical properties, conducting polymers (CPs) has emerged as a very important class of materials4. The presence of conjugated system located along the backbone elevates the conductivity in conducting polymers5. In the conjugated backbone, the ? electrons are available to delocalize into a conduction band and in the perfect condition of a uniform chain, the resulting conduction band would elevates metallic behavior 6. Among the conducting polymers, polypyrrole, Polyaniline, polythiophene and their derivatives are discovered as promising material for catalysis, sensors, rechargeable batteries and microelectronics 7. Conducting polymer nanocomposites have interested considerable scientific and technological concern due to their potential applications in various fields8.
Metal oxides play a significant role in many areas of chemistry, physical and materials science and technology9-11. Although there are different metal oxides, for example, rare-earth oxides, alkali and alkaline earth metal oxides, etc., the transition metal oxides are important because they are exhibit exciting magnetic and electrical properties.12
The transition metal oxides are attractive to scientists due to that, the various optical, chemical, physical and magnetic properties of metal oxides lead to change in composition and structure beside, metal oxide is simple formation, have multifunctional performance and have overall characteristics such as thermal conductivity, hardness, thermal stability, and chemical resistance 12-14.
The transition metals oxides/ Mixed metal oxide as compounds have various practical applications such as sensors, fabrication of microelectronic circuits, piezoelectric devices, energy storage (fuel cells, supercapacitor, Li-ion batteries), corrosion, catalysts and use in the semiconductor industry14-22.
The aim In the field of nanotechnology is making nanostructures with unique properties, the limited size and a high density of end surface sites of oxide nanoparticles can present novel chemical and physical properties 23.
Nanostructured carbon materials have brought considerable attention because of their capability for use in various fields for example water, environment, biomedicine and energy technologies, such as fuel cells and batteries. Nanostructured carbon materials form multiple allotropes (0D-, 1D-, 2D-, and 3D nanoscale) for example fullerene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, graphite ,etc.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as one of the most promising new materials have a broad variety of unique features, such as mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. these properties arise due to the individual structures, high stabilities, low resistivities, and high surface-to-volume ratios.
Graphene has attracted a great deal of attention in different research fields for their fascinating physical properties, such as electromechanical modulation, unique magneto transport, and extremely high carrier mobility.
The chemical functionalization (covalent and non-covalent) of CNTs and graphene by Introduction of functional groups ,for example, amino and carboxyl groups can modify the electronic, chemical and structural properties of them and lead to achieving the several possible applications that CNTs and graphene can give.
The prepare of polymer hybrid materials has the aim of getting a new nanocomposite compound having synergetic behaviors between the inorganic material and polymer. Incorporation of nanostructured inorganic material into the polymer will remove the shortcomings of each component24-26. The nanoscale of ( inorganic fillers, CNTs and graphene ) show high surface to volume ratio and thus supposed to modify the dielectric, optical, and electric properties of the polymer27, 28. Composites formed from (conducting polymers composite with metal oxide or CNTs or graphene) can present improved properties for diverse applications. In this research we will focus in develop of modified electrodes by using Composites formed from (conducting polymers composite with metal oxide or Carboxylic acid functionalized CNTs or Carboxylic acid functionalized graphene) whish use as sensor such as: liquid sensor for example: sensor for drugs (paracetamol), enzymes (glucose), hormones (adrenalin) and Sensor for detecting of heavy metal and hazardous chemicals (Phenyl Hydrazine), gas sensor for example : acetone, alcohol, butane, liquefied petroleum, hydrogen, NH3 , and H2, Wireless Sensor, Magnetic field sensor, Stress sensor, Temperature-Sensing Device and Humidity sensor. all this variety of applications can support to develop and facilitate the services in the different fields like industrial, agricultural, health and environmental.