One of the important things in the foreign policy of a state is looking continuity and change. Continuity earns foreign policy of a state an identity while keeping it between certain parameters. Just when continuation cannot respond to the basic requirements of a state’s foreign policy due to internal and external causes, change becomes a necessity in foreign policy. A state faces change in foreign policy as an inevitability and a choice as well. Change takes on inevitability depending on how strong the internal and external dynamics compel a state to pursue a new course in foreign policy.
Every country has a foreign policy. Foreign policy encompasses relations with other countries and is carried out by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in each country. With respect to neighbors and other world states, the princes from which the princes will remain bound to national aims may change, but the basic principles do not change much. Under the United Nations, where the world states still speak about world affairs, the emissaries voices the views of the countries and remains committed to the same principles when voting. While preparing a nation’s foreign policy, it considers the national interests of the nation, the internal and external environment, national values, foreign policy goals and decisions of other nations and the nature of international power structure. They constitute the elements / elements of Foreign Policy.
Some of these elements are; the dimension of the state, geographical factors, Level and nature of economic development, state structure, cultural and historical factors, diplomacy.
The dimension of the state have the chance to become great powers in international relations. (Such as America-China-Russia). There is also great competition for world leadership. The strongest state in every age plays this role. The US is considered the most powerful state in the world with its large economy and military power. In many countries of the world, there are bases and seas. But now China is rapidly expanding its economy. Capital strength, influence is increasing. China is also a country that is recognized as a leader. Again, Russia is acting like a rival of the United States. They also want to gain great power in the world at the same time. But the size of the state alone is not enough to be a great power and an effective force in foreign policy. For example; The Middle Eastern countries, although small in size, play a very active role in international relations, which is the largest source of oil. Japan is a relatively small state, and its role in international relations is active and influential.
The geography of a state is a relatively permanent and stable element of foreign policy. The topography, fertility, climate and location of the land are the main geographical factors affecting the foreign policy of a nation. These factors determine both the ability and the needs of a nation to meet its needs. Appropriate geographical factors can help and encourage the nation to adopt higher goals and to guide them towards higher goals. Geography is an important and permanent factor for foreign policy, but it is not a determining factor. It tends to abolish the revolutionary developments and the geographical obstacles of the nations in communication and modern warfare and reduce the importance of geography.
Economic development and prosperity
Today’s developed countries are highly industrialized and economically developed countries. Economic development also specifies the area of relations that a nation wishes to establish with other nations. for example, Japan’s foreign policy intent is related to direct economic development. The military preparation of a nation is also directly related to the economic development and industrialization factor. Only developed countries in terms of industry and economy may be hoping to become a large and stable military force. Economic power now forms an essential dimension of national power; it can also be used more effectively in order to secure foreign policy objectives. The US economic power has become an important instrument in foreign policy. On the other hand, the steady development of the Indian economy has made a great contribution to India’s external relations. Thus, the level of economic development, industrialization and modernization and the nature of foreign policy are important factors. Cultural heritage and a nation’s history are also important and valuable factors of Foreign Policy. Norms and traditions that shape the life of a state are highly influential factors in their foreign policy. Throughout the period of interpreting and experiencing the aims of national interests, it is always governed by cultural ties, historical traditions and experiences. People’s cultural affiliation is always a source of strength for them. In the process of international bargaining, national interests materially impact their ability to secure their objectives. Historical events and cultural ties help to assess the nature and extent of relations with other nations.
Cyprus Peace Operation, 20 July 1974 State of the Republic of Turkey on the name of the military operation conducted by the Turkish Armed Forces. Military in the eastern Mediterranean in the historical process, geopolitical and strategic importance of Cyprus to the fore, is the most sensitive point in the foreign policy of the Republic of Turkey. Cyprus, the third largest island of the Mediterranean, passed into Ottoman rule in 1571 and continued its dominance until 1878. The administration of Cyprus was temporarily settled in England in 1878. Britain dominated Cyprus until 1960. In 1960, Turkey, Cyprus and Greece as guarantor was founded in England. This republic was not long lasting and lasting. Because the Greek Cypriots continued their Enosis initiatives and hundreds of Turkish Cypriots were murdered by Greek Cypriots. One of the guarantor states Turkey, Turkish Cypriots to recover in 1963, 1964 and made attempts in 1967. These initiatives prevented the planned massacre by the Greek Cypriots and saved thousands of Turkish Cypriot lives. If Turkey is to save Turkish Cypriots 1963, 1964 and Turkish Cypriots was Finding initiatives in 1967, it would be destroyed by the Greek Cypriots.
In 1974, the military junta in Greece, the pro-Enosis pro-EOKA-B organized a coup, and the president of Makarois was overthrown and brought to the head of the Nikos Sampson state by the EOKA leaders. In 1974, President Makarios was overthrown by the junta leadership in Greece with a pro-Enosis pro-EOKA-B organization in Cyprus, and Nikos Sampson, head of the EOKA leadership, was brought to the presidency. Turkey this coup, was regarded as an attempt to join the island to Greece. According to Zürich and London agreements, Britain, which is the third guarantor state, declared the right to intervene to protect the Turks on the island. The talks held in London, England, Turkey opposed the use of the right to intervene. When Joseph Sisco, the mediator sent by the US, applied to the policy of distraction, it seemed necessary to remove troops from the island to protect the Turkish presence in Cyprus. At the end of this peace operation, the life safety of the Turkish Cypriots was ensured.