Obesity nutritional status based on the BMI was born.

Obesity is a common, preventable and ubiquitous disease of clinical and
public health importance. It is often a major risk factor for the development
of several non-communicable diseases, significant disability and premature death

Obesity is defined as a condition of abnormal or excessive fat
accumulation in adipose tissue, to the extent that health is impaired

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Until recently the relation between obesity and
coronary heart disease was viewed as indirect, ie, through covariates related
to both obesity and coronary heart disease risk, including hypertension; dyslipidemia,
particularly reductions in HDL cholesterol (impaired lipid profile); and
impaired glucose tolerance or non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 2).
Insulin resistance and accompanying hyperinsulinemia are typically associated
with these comorbidities. Although
most of the comorbidities relating obesity to coronary artery disease increase
as BMI increases, they also relate to body fat distribution. Long-term
longitudinal studies, however, indicate that obesity as such not only relates
to but predicts coronary atherosclerosis. This relation appears to exist for
both males and females with minimal increases in BMI.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a simple index of weight-for-height that is
commonly used to classify underweight, overweight and obesity in adults. The Body Mass Index (BMI) is widely
used for the determination of nutritional status or body composition. It is the
value obtained when the weight in kilograms is divided by the square of the
height in meters. Nutritional status is determined through BMI cut-offs values
as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) however, in recent years
some scientists in the Asia- Pacific region made recommendations that the
criteria values be modified to fit the Asian body composition, which is claimed
to be different compared to the American or European body composition. Thus the
“Asian criteria” for the determination of nutritional status based on
the BMI was born.


The cold pressor test is a widely used and time tested
experimental technique for measuring autonomic functions, involving immersion
of the hand or forearm in cold water. First documented as a test of
cardiovascular stress reactivity, its application has grown in investigation of
pain perception, mechanisms, and treatment is due to a gradually mounting
painful sensation of mild to moderate intensity. As water temperatures used are
within the range considered noxious (below 15°C), nociceptors (pain receptors)
are activated and transmit an aversive signal to the CNS. This test produces an
increased heart rate, total vascular resistance, arterial blood pressure and
cardiac output. These effects are attributed to increased sympathetic vasomotor
neuronal activity

imbalance of the autonomic nervous system is prevalent and potent risk factor
for adverse cardiovascular events including mortality.Any factor that lead to
inappropriate activation of the sympathetic nervous system.Any factor that lead
to inappropriate activation of the sympathetic nervous system can be expected
to have an adverse effect on this measures. Any factor that increases vagal
tone tends to improve outcomes. Factors linking obesity to increase BP and
blood volume and cardiac output that is caused by increased metabolic demand. 


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