Nama : Maria Vregina Voneria PalisNim : 15211141003Constrastive TextologyEvery

Nama : Maria Vregina Voneria PalisNim : 15211141003Constrastive TextologyEvery language around the world has their own features and system. Contrastive analysis is a study which the purpose of it is to identifying structural differences and similarities in two different languages.  The idea of contrastive anlaysis is stated for the first time by Robert Lado (1957) in his book, Linguistics Across Cultures. He stated that it is possible for identify some areas of source text and target  text by predicting, explaining, and  comparing the problem in the two languages and cultures. It was use extensively by L2 learner in the field of Second Language Acquisition so that they can understand some features of the target language. The goal of this study (CA) is to increase efficiency in L2 teaching and also testing. According to Kardaleska (2006), Contrastive  Analysis of two languages (L1 and L2) is focus on specific elements of the sytem of each language such as phonology, morphology, lexicology, syntax and text analysis. This study emphasizes the influence of L1 learner (the mother tongue) in learning a L2 (the foreign language). With comparing the languages it will help the learner to predict the errors that maybe made by L2 learners or help the learner to not make a mistake while translating.The Idea of Plural- Thomas is a doctorThomas adalah seorang dokter- Teachers are set up a meeting this morning Para guru mengadakan pertemuan pagi ini- A baby needs her parents careSeorang bayi memerlukan perhatian orang tuanya- Babies need their parents careBayi – bayi memerlukan perhatian orang tuanya- Women are participated in the electionPara wanita berpatisipasi dalam pemilu- A woman live in this houseSeorang wanita tinggal dirumah iniPlural in Bahasa Indonesia and English have a very different features. The form of plural in Bahasa Indonesia by reduplicating the word, ex. Baju – baju, gelas – gelas, atau buku – buku. While in English, the form of plural can be express by the addition of “s” or “es”to a noun to make a noun plural, or “s” or “es” added to a verb to express that the subject is singular.  From the example of the ideas of plural, in Bahasa Indonesia the word teachers was translated into “para guru” the word “para” is to describe the number of subject that is more than one. Reduplicating also can be use to describe the plural form in Bahasa Indonesia. For Example, the word “babies” was translated into “bayi – bayi”. The use of “seorang”, “sebuah”, and “seekor” also can be an indicated that the subject is singular in Bahasa Indonesia. While to express the singular form of “wanita” and “pria” the word that can be use are “woman” and “man”  and the plural form are “women” and “men”. Gender Orientation- He buy a new carDia membeli mobil baru- The pen belongs to herBolpoin itu miliknya- Anak itu bermain dihalaman sekolahThe girl plays on the schoolyardThe boy plays on the schoolyard- My brother is a basketball playerSaudara laki – lakiku adalah seorang pemain basket- I go to the library this morning with my sisterSaya pergi ke perpustakaan pagi ini bersama saudara perempuanku  In English, the use of pronoun such as “He”, “She”, “Her”, “Him”, and “His” reflect the gender orientation. The gender orientation also use to differentiate subject in a sentence. From the example, the word “brother” and “sister” were choosen to differentiate male and female siblings. Other examples are the word “son” and “daughter” which are use to differentiate male and female child, “cock”, “hen”, “schoolmaster”, “schoolmistress”, etc. In Bahasa Indonesia the word “child” will be translate into “anak” while in English they use more specific words to descripe the gender like “boy” or “girl”. We can say that English strongly gender oriented than Bahasa Indonesia.Kinship Orientation- Mbak Tania adalah seorang guruTania is a teacher( there is no word in English that can reflect the word “mbak” in Bahasa Indonesia). In english the word “mbak” have the same meaning as “older sister” but have no specific term. Cultural background (java) is the one who create this expression in Bahasa Indonesia. The cultural bound of Javanese people create a close and respectful relationship with other society. Other examples are “dek” and “mas”. Passive Voice- The novel was read by Tom in one dayNovelnya dibaca oleh Tom dalam sehari- The floor was swept by SamLantainya disapu oleh SamIn Bahasa Indonesia, passive voice is shown by addig “di” in front of a verb while in English the form of passive is embody “be + past participle”. From example,  there are “ditulis” as the passive form of “menulis”, “disapu” as the passive form of “menyapu”. The different between passive voice in Indonesia and English is the focus of the sentence. In Indonesia the focus of the passive voice is on the Object. “Lantainya disapu oleh Sam”, the focus is on Sam as the object. In English the focus of the passive voice is on the subject. “The floor was swept by Sam”, the focus of this sentence is on “the floor” as the subject. References :Handoko, B.G. (2015). Kaidah Kalimat Aktif dan Pasif. Retrivied from A Contrastive Analysis Between English and Indonesian Language. Retrivied from  Napitupulu, S. (2017, June 24). On Translating Prepositions from English into Indonesian: A Case Study of Indonesian EFL Students. International Journal of Linguistics, 9(3), 186-200. 


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