researchers indicated that goal setting is essential for achievement in
learning process (Anderman, 2011). Santrock (2011) has indicated that it is
essential to set and achieve short-term goals to move towards to long-term
accomplishment. Meaning, long-term goals are always depend on individuals’
efforts to define and accomplish the goals through setting particular goals
Locke and Latham (1990) have extended the goal
theory by listing the five main characteristics or principles of goal-setting
(as cited in Mind Tools, n.d.). For effective motivations, the presented goals
must possess clarity, challenging, the commitment from the achiever, provide
constructive feedbacks, and appropriate task complexity. I. Clarity- the
presented goals should be productive, unambiguous and measurable. Therefore,
goals should be well defined with clear deadline and less misleading
information on the expectation of the achievement. (Johnson, 2012; Mind Tools, n.d.).
II. Challenge- the goals must possess sufficient level of challenge to motivate
the individuals to put in more effort in achieving the goals (Mind Tools, n.d).
The extreme low or high of task difficulty will cause boredom or avoidance of
failure while completing the tasks which affect the result of the goals. III.
Commitment- people will show their commitment if they feel they are part of the
achievement. The most used strategy is to get the individuals to be involved in
the planning, setting up the goals and decision making process (Johnson, 2012).
Additionally, there is a linkage between commitment and task difficulty where
individuals who perceive the goal is difficult and challenging would to be
driven and inspired to achieve the goals (Johnson, 2012; Mind Tools, n.d). IV.
Feedback- the contain of the feedback should be focus on the progression
checking, figuring out the current obstacles, proposal of solution and the need
of additional resources (Johnson, 2012). Feedback could serve as a clear benchmark
to guide the executors for self-evaluation (Mind Tools, n.d). The inclusion of
praise and appreciation in the feedback process will be served as rewards to
motivate the executors to continue work hard in the task (Johnson, 2012). V.
Task complexity- for the goals with higher level of complexity, have to ensure
the individuals do not feel too overwhelmed (Johnson, 2012). Therefore,
sufficient time, training and guidance must be given to achieve the target
(Mind Tools, n.d.).