Measuring service quality is a good way to show if the
services are great or poor and if the customers are satisfied. A researcher with
the last name of Framer listed in his
study: “three components of service quality, called the 3 P’s of service
quality” (Haywood-Farmer, A Conceptual Model of Service Quality, 1988).In the study,
service quality was described as being part of three elements:
1. Physical facilities, processes and procedures;
on the part of serving staff, and;
3. Professional judgment on the part of serving staff but
to get good quality service. (Haywood-Farmer, A Conceptual
Model of Service Quality, 1988)
He concluded that “an appropriate, carefully balanced
mix of these three elements must be achieved” (Haywood-Farmer, A Conceptual Model of Service Quality, 1988). According to him
this balanced mix will consist of the following three factors: labor intensity,
service process customization, and contact and interaction between the customer
and the service process.
The SERVQUAL scale model which is also more commonly
known as the gap model by Parasuraman has been proven to be one of the best ways
to measure the quality of services provided by an organization. This service
evaluation method has been proven to be consistent as well as reliable. When
the experienced service is less than the expected service it shows less than
satisfactory service quality, and when experienced service is more than
expected service, than it shows that service quality is more than satisfactory (Jain, 2008). The way this theory
is tested, it seems the idea of SERVQUAL best fits the evaluation of service quality by the customers view. The original study by Parasuraman presented ten
dimensions of service quality as listed below:
appearance of physical objects and staff members connected with the service (such
as: accommodation, equipment, staff uniforms, and so on).
ability to deliver the promised service.
the readiness of staff members to help in a content and effective way.
capability of staff members.
thoughtfulness, and overall politeness shows by staff members who are in
contact with customers.
and honesty of the service provider.
Security: No doubt
of economic risk and physical danger.
accessibility of the service provider.
of language by the service provider, how does the service provider communicate with
customer: efforts taken by the service provider to understand the customer.
Further research led to the finding that within these
10 dimensions, some were linked to each other. The ten dimensions above were
later reduced to five dimensions as seen below:
physical facilities, equipment, and the look of personnel
ability to perform the promised service as promised and accurately
willingness to help customers and provide service
knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to inspire trust and
attention the service provider gives to its customers