Faculty of Humanities and Educational Sciences
Department of European Languages
Course paper
Author HNAV16, Egl? Ge?ait?Scientific advisor Irena Darginavi?ien?Klaip?da, 2017
2.1.1. Borrowing
21.2. Calque
2.1.3.Word-for-word translation
2.2.1. Modulation
2.2.2. Adaptation
2.2.3. Concretization or differentiation
2.2.4. Paraphrasing
2.2.5. Logical Derivation
3.1.Language structure
3.2. Idioms
3.3. Cultural context
3.4.Compound words
3.5. Missing terms
3.6. Words with multiple meanings
As stated by widely known and well-loved American poet, Henry Wadsworth – a translator, like a witness on the stand, should hold up his right hand and swear to ”tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth”. Most people would agree with that, because it is really difficult to find the equivalent meaning. There are many ways to translate from one language to another. Translation method could be divided into literal and idiomatic translation. In this course paper I will compare those two types by focusing on the use of intended meaning, the connotation in sentences, the idiomatic meaning, the denotation and the word order. Translation is really significant in our daily life. Because of it, nations are allowed to forge interactive relationships in technology, politics, and etc. Translation is a process, during which the translator: makes a number of decisions on how to interpret the source text, uses resources and apply technical skills to render the text in the target language and re-expresses that meaning in the target text. In example, the translation. Therefore, translation is perceived as a problem-solving process.

This course paper will be focused on the issues of techniques of translation, including word-for-word translation, literal translation, faithful translation, semantic translation, adaptive translation, free translation, idiomatic translation and communicative translation. Chosen objects of the research are fairy tales for children: Egl?, Queen of Serpents, War of the Mushrooms by Justinas Marcinkevi?ius. The aim of this course paper is to examine the methods used in translation from English into Lithuanian. To analyze and explore translation techniques of the selected sample of fairy tales for children and then define the results, compare methods of translation, find similarities and differences.

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Translation Studies as an area of research is a new concept. More than 2000 years translators and scholars discussed translation, but only after the 2nd World war this field of study developed into something scientific. This improvement was due of the need of really important factual prose texts such as commercial correspondence. There was an urge to create convenient techniques of translating in the interest of teaching how to translate. During the 1950s in the Soviet Union ( Vvedenie v teoriju by perevoda by A. V. Fedorov) and in Canada (stylistique comparée du français et de l’anglais) appeared the first linguistic books on methods of translation.
Translation is a job where many common challenges are faced even by experts. Translators are trained individuals who understand the linguistic nuances required whenever they are doing translation work and know that there is no room for error. Still, each translation job is unique, thus challenges are ever present in the job. The aim of my investigation is to study what methods are used in translation from English language into Lithuanian, what problems may occur during translation, and how to avoid those problems. Writing the course paper 3 tasks of the investigation were set:
1. To classify differences between methods of translation
2. To analyze (study) examples of translation.

3. To study : what are the most common problems of translating and how to avoid them, what are the most common, to compare differences between methods of translation and distinguish how they vary.
In this course paper there will be used analytical and comparative methods. By those research methods different techniques of translation will be analyzed and compared. The course paper will start with an introduction about the topic- methods of translation from English into Lithuanian. Then, similarities and differences of methods of translation will be written. Problems that are faced during translation will be added. In the end of the paper work, conclusions will be made.

Literal translation
According to Cambridge dictionary a literal translation of a text is done by translating each word separately, without looking at how the words are used together in a phrase or sentence. Another term for “literal translation” is “metaphrase”; and for phrasal (“sense”) translation — “paraphrase.” In translation studies, literal translation is often associated with scientific, technical, technological or legal texts. Direct translation does not attempt to convey text`s style, beauty and poetry making it sound unnatural by translating each word of the original work. In non-technical texts this type of translation leads to mistranslation of idioms making the meaning of the text confusing.

The materials of the research:
Albakry, M. (2004). Linguistic and cultural issues in literary translation. Retrieved November 17, 2006 from http://accurapid.com/journal/29liter.htm
Online Cambridge dictionary for definitions https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/translation
Graedler, A.L. (2000). Cultural shock. Retrieved December 6, 2006 from http://www.hf.uio.no/iba/nettkurs/translation/grammar/top7culture.html
Venuti, L. (1998). Strategies of translation. In M. Baker (Ed.), Encyclopedia of translation studies (pp. 240-244). London and New York: Routledge.

Hervey, S., ; Higgins, I. (1992). Thinking Translation. London ; New York: Routledge.


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