adulthood: Starting in 1995 , psychologist Jeffrey Jensen Arnett, PhD,
Interviewed 300 young people age 18to 29 in cities around the nation over five
years, asking them questions about what they wanted out of life. Despite stark
differences in social background and likely economic prospects , Arnett was
struck by the perception of ” Feeling in
between” – Knowing they were pulling clear of struggles of adolescents and
starting to feel responsible for themselves, but still closely tied to their parents
also reported pondering their personal identity, a theme that surprised Arnett,
Who thought most would have settled that question as adolescents. Working from
those interviews and examining broad demographic indicators, Arnett proposed a
new period of life span development he calls ” Emerging adulthood” Which Eric
Erikson articulaytes to be called the Early Adulthood or young adulthood where
their psychosocial crisis is Intimacy versus Isolation.
Features of Emerging Adulthood
Age of identity exploration. Young people
are deciding who they are and what they want out of work, school and love.
Age of instability. The post- high school
years are marked by repeated resident changes, as young people either go to
college, or live with friends or a romantic partner. For most , frequent moves
end as families and careers are established in 30s.
Age of self focus. Freed of the parent-
and society directed routine of school young people try to decide what they
want to do , where they want to go and who they want to be with- Before those
choices get limited by the Constraints of marriage , children and a career.
Age of feeling in between . Many emerging
adults say they are taking responsibility for themselves, but still not
completely feel like an adult.
Age of possibilities. Optimism reigns.
Most emerging adults believe they have good chances of living ” better than
their parents did “, and even if their parents are divorced, They believe they
will find a life long soul mate.
Parenting: Erik erikson and others claim that two
aspects of parenting are especially important throughout childhood and
adolescents to the adult they become. 2
major dimensions of parenting:
Acceptance/responsiveness refers to the
amount of support and affection the parent displays. Parent classified as accepting
and responsive often smile at praise, and
encourage their children , expressing a great deal of warmth, even though they
become quite critical when a child misbehaves. By contrast , less accepting and
relatively unresponsive parents are often quick to criticize , belittle, punish
or ignore a child, they rarely communicate to children that they are valued or
Demandingness/ Control: refers to the
amount of regulation or supervision parents undertake with their children .
Controlling or demanding parents keep limits on their children’s freedom of
expression by imposing many demands and actively surveying their children’s
behaviour to ensure that these behaviour’s ae followed.
It turns out that the two major parenting dimensions
are reasonably independent and there are 4 patterns of parenting styles:
: A very restricting pattern of parenting in which adults impose many rules,
expect strict obedience, rarely if ever explains to the child which it is
necessary to comply with all the regulations and often rely on punitive and
forceful tactics to gain compliance. Authoritarian parenting is not sensitive to a child’s conflicting view
points, expecting instead for the child
to accept their word as law and to respect their authority.
parenting: A controlling but flexible style
in which parents make many reasonable demands of their children . they
are careful to provide rationale for complying with the limits they set and
they endure that their children follow those guidelines. However they are much
more accepting of and responsive to
their children’s point of view than
authoritatrian parents are and often seek their children’s participation in
family decision making.
parenting: An accepting but lax pattern of parenting in which adults make
relatively few demands, permit their children to freely express their feelings
and impulses , do no closely monitor their children’s activities, and rarely
exert firm control over their behaviour.
parenting: In recent years it has become quite clear that the least successful
parenting style is what might be termed Uninvolved parenting- An extremely lax
and undemanding approach displayed by parents who have either rejected their
children or are so overwhelmed with their own stresses and problems that they
have’nt much time or energy to devote to their children (Maccoby & Martin,
1983). By age 3 children of uninvolved parents are relatively high in
aggression and such externalising
behaviours as temper tantrums.(Miller et al 1993). Further more they tend to be
disruptive and perform really poorly in
classroom in childhood(Eckenrode,Laird, & Doris, 1993). And often become
hostile , selfish and rebellious adolescents who lack meaningful long range
goals and are prone to commit such anti social and delinquent acts as alcohol
and drug abuse, sexual misconduct, truancy and a wide variety of criminal
offenses( Kurdek & Fine, 1994 ; Pattreson , Reid & Dishion,1992) . In
effect, these youngsters have neglectful (“or even detached”) parents whose
actions seems to be saying ” I don’t care
about you or what you do”- A message that undoubtedly breeds resentment
and willingness to strike back at these aloof , uncaring adversaries or at
other authority figures
Self esteem: Belief in ones abilities and ones worth
or value is self esteem. It is the extend to which one likes, accepts and
respects oneself. High self esteem helps one to meet everyday challenges and
stay on course to become all that one can be. Self esteem is not conceit or
self absorption. Genuine self esteem is liking , accepting and respecting oneself.
Those with low self esteem may react by:
Blaming others for their own weakness or
Becoming easily frustrated or defensive
Avoiding situations that make them
Feeling weak and incompetent
Feeling others don’t value them
Expressing few emotions
Being influenced easily by others
Low Self esteem often leads to loneliness, anxiety ,
resentment, irritability and little life satisfaction. Career relationship and
mental health problems can often be traced to the quality of decisions and
actions an individual has taken , which in turn can be traced back to low self