In the current evolving world, the advancement
of intelligent techniques like remanufacturing, quality control and customer relationship
management have become highly significant. Occupations that involve the use of coherent
and diagnostic abilities became more demanding in today’s vigorous professional
setting. The insight and abilities that were obtained from past encounters could
no longer be suitable in facing new problems. Individuals who preserve their
insight and abilities from previous experiences, enabling them to evaluate new
conditions and perfect new results are considered to be intelligent. It is
easier for people to deal with technical problems rather than social problems
that they encounter in their personal and professional lives. Beforehand, most
companies were not inclined to promote their workers’ competence in regard to
emotional intelligence. However, at present, companies must concentrate on the
inefficiency of their workers’ emotional intelligence if they would like to
remain successful. Corporations, could do this by developing their workers
abilities in relation to customers’ negotiation, management, communication and
conflict handling as this will definitely be valuable to the company. To
improve the quality of service and client relationship, appropriate
communication between clients and employees is imperative. Communication in the
service industry has recently acquired substantial recognition. That is the
reason that the notion of emotional intelligence is mostly examined in this
particular area, as to perceive the various distinct emotions and strength a
person obtains and the different means to deal with them so as to succeed.
In the last 20 years companies observed a
radical change in management techniques. Jobs have developed into more client
orientated and intelligence based positions, with the urgency of team work. As
an overall outcome people became more independent at most level positions of a
company. This has generated less dictatorial business practices with hardly any
degrees of management. The structure of such businesses has permitted those
individuals with exceedingly advanced social skills to become prosperous than
those who transcend in academics. Time shows that emotional intelligence is not
a recent concept, it has simply captured the widely accepted compromise as a
crucial aspect of organizational progress.
The acclaimed psychologists Mayer and Salovey
have initially created the term ’emotional intelligence’ back in 1990.
Nevertheless, Daniel Goleman made it well-known later in 1995 in his book,
which became a bestseller, Emotional
Intelligence: Why it can Matter More than IQ. The book gained popularity
due to Goleman claiming that EI has the potential to be more valuable than IQ
and that EI can be developed, whilst IQ cannot.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is an occurrence that
contains evaluation in regard to an individual’s capacity to inspect, evaluate
and construe the situation (Wechsler, 1958). It is the cerebral proficiency of
a person that is determinable and may be displayed quantitatively. Intelligence
is a mental capability requires identification and adjustments of an
individuals’ living environment. IQ is the responsive psychological capacity or
specifically it is the proficiency of an individual that allows them to
contemplate, appreciate and evaluate the coherent and theoretical questions. It
is an evaluation of intellectual performance through which people of a similar
age category can be related to each other.
Intelligence quotients’ comprehensive
predictive benefit is the mental efficiency that is used greatly in various
scopes of ordinary life. It portrays an exceptionally fixed, general efficiency
for obtaining, managing and applying knowledge of nearly all types. That is the
rationale behind a greater IQ being of great value. It’s not solely linked to
the degree of intelligence obtained or achieved by that person, but it truly
displays the ability to capitulate from suitable guidance, speculate
theoretically, understand and answer obstacles. Great knowledge is valuable in
all essential aspects of everyday life. Since the majority of individuals need some
training and examining, particularly during time of technological and public
Individuals of higher rational have the
improved ability to grasp information and prepare in advance since they possess
an impulse to accomplish greater gain than those persons with a significantly
lower IQ. However, study demonstrates that the intuition of a person varies
from social competence. The majority of individuals who possess a greater
degree of IQ could in turn have fewer social ingenuity. There exist numerous
examinations and research papers that were composed by various researchers to
observe if the IQ of an individual may or may not be improved. Although inherently
it’s considered that developing the level of IQ is unachievable as this is a characteristic
of genetics. Nevertheless, the intelligence quotient derives a persons’
intellect. Intellect is seen to be interpreted and defined by various means as
there exist different ways of calculating it. A persons’ level of IQ is
measured by particular IQ tests and it should not be used as the definitive
analysis of their intelligence. The characteristics of the IQ, specifically the
problem solving aspect, are still constantly disputed between various
scientists and psychologists.
Emotional Intelligence (EI)
Emotional intelligence (EI) is defined as the
skill to identify and manage the emotions in other individuals as well as
yourself and then to apply this knowledge to influence the behaviour and
thought process of that particular individual (Mayer, 2008). The subject of
emotional intelligence is much disputed as various other subjects in psychology
and in managerial practices. Nevertheless, the enhanced and critical aspects of
EI in work efficiency, management and alternative factors of company activities
have expanded the legitimacy of this notion. People acquire and understand
knowledge materials, and those individuals who possess a greater EI are better
at identifying, transforming and countering their mental state productively and
effortlessly. Reclaiming the wisdom in soul and correlating it with intellect,
results in individuals becoming more engaged, genuine and assured. Due to this,
affecting material portrays an important part in peoples personal and
professional lives. The relationships individuals establish are controlled by
the principles of behaviour that caused our mental states (Mayer, 2008). Compared
to alternative arguments of social sciences, various analysts interpret EI in
diverse approaches. However, it is becoming more apparent that EI is associated
with crucial outcomes.
acknowledged as an important determinant, that correlates with a company’s
effect and prosperity (Wall, 2004). Performance is associated with the influence
of a persons’ actions during some timeframe. Directing a workers’ performance
is extremely crucial so that the series of a company’s objectives could in turn
be carried out. Examining the workers’ competence and calculating their performance,
such that they could be supervised efficiently, will definitely boost the power
of the company. It is essential to monitor the employee’s output but is
impossible to do if their capability to operate is not measured. A company’s
performance and prosperity are highly correlated to the performance of its
workers. Those employees that are more functional will certainly have greater
results. These involve agreement between fellow co-workers, higher capacity and
engagement within the organization.
IQ and Work Performance
studies have disclosed that the interrelationship among IQ and job performance
of an individual fluctuates from infinitesimal to reasonably effective.
Nevertheless, in 1998 Hunter and Schmidt had the belief that, intelligence is
by far the main determinant in the assessment of an individual’s work
performance. Thus, enrolling employees on the foundation of their intelligence leads
to progression in other workers performance, therefore resulting in higher
financial worth of the company. Due to the outcomes of different factual
research (Schmidt, 2002), several executives started to advocate various
techniques for administrators and human resources (HR) specialists. These
techniques determine the approximate fiscal worth of recruiting workers to
companies on the basis of their IQ (Hunter and Schmidt, 1998). Literature also
comes to agreement on the distinct association of job performance and the IQ
measure. Therefore, the workforce who possess a higher intellect could improve
their competence and grasp information relevant to the job, thus resulting in
enhanced wok efficiency (Hunter, 1986).
In 2002 psychologists
Hunter and Schmidt established that, over the previous ten decades thousands of
research studies were undergone on examining the correlation between the job
performance of an individual and their IQ (Kuncel, 2004). However, this
correlation would be most appraised by regarding the type and magnitude of the
work difficulty at hand. Generally, jobs diverge considerably heavily relying
on the contrasting IQ ranges of those employees. People with an IQ of 120 or
above, are regarded competing in intellect for the majority of organizations.
These make up the top ten percent of the world population. When in fact those
people with an IQ of 80 or below, obtain less job options and are
uncompetitive. Once again these make up the bottom ten percent of the world
population. Supported by the conclusions of these studies it was found that
intelligence could adequately forecast the performance of an employee.
In 1984 a meta-analysis
was composed by Hunter and Hunter that overcame previous studies that
concentrated on the connection between job performance and an employees’
intelligence. They found that if a persons’ cognitive proficiency is solely
utilised as a forecaster in assessing the workers’ performance, then this results
in moderate legitimacy among all the other job segments. However, this does not
necessarily signify that intellect alone anticipates a workers’ efficiency insufficiently.
In 1992 psychologists Ree and Earles constructed a study to investigate the
performance of various Air Force employees that had background knowledge of
operating in 89 different work exercise courses. The research concluded that IQ
and job performance was greatly interlinked in all difficulties of the courses.
Thus, it was derived that the intellect of an individual is a powerful envision
of assessing a workers’ future performance. Additionally, more current studies
and Schmidt, 2004) report that IQ is an accurate predictor of an employee’s
performance in a wide array of professions, and not particularly the ones that expect
significant intelligence. Furthermore, in 1984 Hunter and Hunter declared that
intellect presents an important aspect in forecasting the performance on an
EI and Work Performance
It is widely believed
that emotional intelligence greatly contributes to job performance by
supporting individuals in forming beneficial relationships, properly functioning
in groups and developing civil advantages. Advisement, support, ingenuity and efficiency
of other individuals commonly impacts the workers’ job performance (Seibert,
2001). Emotional Intelligence helps improve a workers’ performance by assisting
them to comprehend and control their emotions, thus permitting them to handle
anxiety effortlessly, perform strongly under pressure and bracing them for possible
In 1995 Goleman
hypothesized that EI is commensurate, possibly even more powerful than IQ, and
is an essential indicator of accomplishment in the life of an individual, at
both job and private life. Additionally, illustrating that an employees’ EI can
easily influence their own and their colleagues job condition. He applied his
theoretical analysis to the whole company and concluded that, the more plentiful
the company is in regard to emotions, the greater is the predominance of
In order to improve
an individuals’ emotional intelligence, numerous skills are necessary,
including the desire to advance, personal self-analysis, the desire to be
humane, manage emotions, learning ambitions and the ability to listen. Studies
show that, emotions play an important part in companies, whilst intellect on
its own it not enough to demonstrate an employees’ progress in the workplace.
In 2005 Ciarrochi
and Rosete have established that, those executives who better understand their emotions
as well as the feelings of their employees were prone to accomplishing
professional results. Those executives are also considered as highly
coordinated managers by their subordinates and directors. Prior in 2004,
Diggins suggested that it is essential for senior executives to obtain EI, in order
to pass judgment on the foundations of self-sufficiency and communication
skills and also acknowledge how their decisions impact the employees of the
company. For that reason, EI is the main provider in the achievement of company’s
prosperity. Emotional intelligence is the key to productivity and the
continuation of excelled operation in the event of business innovation.
EI supports the
foundations of comprehending the aspect of emotions in enhancing the completion
of assignments. The ability to handle and employ emotions permits workers to
sustain constructive mindsets and mentality correlated with inspirational
settings and displaying beneficial and congenial attitude during working hours
(Goleman, 1995; Ciarrochi, 2000). It is believed that greater EI is associated
with fewer unpleasant emotions and better confidence. There is a clear
connection between EI and positive attitudes and a weak connection between EI
and a pessimistic mindset. In 2000 Ciarrochi expressed that EI is correlated
with positive, congenial and productive emotional control at work. Individuals
who are emotionally intelligent are able display balanced character and
entrusted with serious assignments (McGaugh, 1990).
EI is able to
describe an individuals’ job performance, since it’s crucial for workers to
control their mood as to accomplish the company’s objectives. Experimental
studies demonstrate a linked relationship between an individuals’ EI and their
performance on the job (Goleman,
1995; Cote and Miners, 2006). In a study undergone by
Barsade on 2002, it was confirmed that EI presents a bigger function in the adjusting
the emotions and attitudes of society when they function in groups.
IQ vs. EI
Initially psychologists commenced work and
research regarding the intelligence of an individual, with concentration on the
cognitive features as though, consciousness and rational because those were the
easiest aspects to calculate and assess, later on this developed into IQ.
Nevertheless, there exist other psychologist which perceived that non-cognitive
features were just as crucial. The emotional capability of an individual plays
a critical role in the advancement of an organization worker. Still for several
decades, a contradictory perception was in effect, as mentioned above, that
individuals with great IQ levels are the main backers to organizational
prosperity. With these contradictions in composition, decades of study conclusively
established that the emotional intelligence is the main agent for an employees’
This does not imply that the intelligence quotient
should be disregarded completely, though it implies that emotional intelligence
is the enhanced design for the attitudes of employees. A few advocates of EI
argue that IQ is more trivial than EI in any workplace. In a working
environment, employees undergo constant communication and gathering with
different workers of the company, various interplay contributes to practical effects
and whilst the rest contributes to impractical effects. It is necessary for the
executives and directors of the company to acknowledge the factor of these
effects having an impact on the business altogether in a beneficial or an
unfavourable fashion, as conclusively it influences the segmented market and
the competition advantage. People are demonstrative about feelings, that is why
it is necessary to understand human emotion. Studies demonstrate that emotions
play a significant part in a company setting, whilst intellect on its own is
not enough to analyse ones’ job performance.
In 2005 psychologists Ciarrochi and Rosete established
that those executives who understand the emotions of themselves and their employees
are more prone to accomplish professional success. The majority of them are
also considered as productive managers by their subordinates and senior
directors. Diggins also proposed back in 2004 that top executives must obtain
EI, such that they are able to pass opinions on the foundation of
self-awareness and communication skills and in the meantime, are conscious of
the impact their actions project on others in the company. For that reason, EI
the principal subscriber in the achievement of a company’s advancement and
If the workforce of the company lack to exhibit
emotional intelligence, it could lead to a major cost of the individuals themselves
and the company also. Poor confidence, turbulent manner and mistrust are the
main aspects conclusively burden company’s performance. The transformation and
the demeanour of the workforce surface abruptly, connections dissolve, inspiration
declines and efficiency degrades (Heraty, 1998). EI has the potential to greatly
strengthen the augmentation of the corporation, enhance teamwork, which in turn
increases the rate of customer satisfaction (Bagshaw, 2000). If regulated correctly
emotions could influence higher workforce capacity, integrity, earnings, development,
ambitions at individual, group and management degrees. Various psychologists
like Boyatzis (1999) and Goleman (1998), strongly believe that EI is a crucial
deciding aspect of job performance, defending that in the majority case those
people who are unsuccessful in their profession decline because of inadequate
social skills contrary to professional helplessness. They might also potentially
acquire incompetent conversational skills or unable to adapt to the culture of
the company. However, it has also been argued that the leading influence on the
reputation of EI is the ideology that the EI of an individual can in fact be
advanced, whilst IQ cannot. Even then there still exists some variations of
Intelligence has the potential to be the leading argument for an individual’s job
performance and to be more acknowledged than the intelligence quotient in an
organization. The majority of people with high intellect capacity, the ones
that keep an exceptional grade record, obtain poor social skills and interaction
with other work colleagues. The reason for that imperfection is the deficiency
of EI efficiency, while their IQ is above average. This argument does not
signify that IQ may be completely disregarded, but it shows that EI is of a greater
significance than IQ in terms of the enhancement of job performance. Intelligence
plays a completely different role in other fields of work, especially those
that are at distant spectrums, for example a construction worker and a university
professor. The emotional proficiency of an individual plays an important
function to the progress of a colleague. People are emotional beings and EI is
one of the initial advancements facing the comprehension of those mental states.
In conclusion, emotional intelligence is more essential in an organizational
setting than is the intelligence quotient. It has the ability to aid executives
in the enhancement of their subordinates by the development of their mental
ability to perform. For that reason, it is apparent that emotional intelligence
is a much better predictor than cognitive intelligence of performance at work.
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