Introduction problems that are faced by the Olympic board


report will assess the diverse theories in motivation and communication on
managerial functions, as well as finding and analysing how they apply to
organisational issues. In addition, it will also discuss problems that are
faced by the Olympic board when attracting and keeping volunteers, using one or
more motivation theories as a foundation.

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What is motivation

originates from the happiness in the work itself or from the yearning to
accomplish certain objectives, whether for personal or other e.g. to advance in
the hierarchy or to earn more money. Their performance is determined by what
inspires them, hence performance= function, where function comprises of
capability and motivation (See appendix 1). Furthermore, motivation is
frequently divided in to two parts, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. It is
important that not all volunteers are equal, so the understanding of different
forms of motivation is crucial. This would enable the Olympic committee to
better assemble their team members into groups and apply the right type of

motivation means that fuel for one’s ambition is coming from within. This type
of motivation is the strongest as they are usually in accordance to the persons
belief system, so importance is attached to it (Types of Motivation, 2017,
Online). An example can be:

status- Most people that are motivated intrinsically have the wish to feel
important. This can cause a problem for the Olympic committee as they would
need to conform to the will of most of the volunteers and which if they don’t
can cause them to be isolated and not accepted.

motivation means that fuel for one’s ambition is coming externally. The desire
to complete the task is controlled by an outside source. However, the
completion of such task can be rewarding for the person. A few examples are,
money, bonuses, benefit package and awards (Types of Motivation, 2017, Online).



Maslow’s Theory

Maslow developed a system called Maslow’s “Hierarchy of Needs” that portrays aa
persons self-actualisation on a pyramid (See Appendix 2). The pyramid consists
of five levels where the basic needs are found at the base and the most complex
at the top. This concept advocates that only after a person has reached the top
level of the pyramid will the person reach their self-actualisation.

first level “physiological needs” comprises of the vital needs for human
survival. Examples include, water, food, clothes and sleep. Without these a
human cannot continue to exist therefore not able to progress up the hierarchy
(Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, 2017, Online). In this situation the Olympics
committee providing basic needs to their volunteers such as shelter can help
boost their motivational as they feel cared for. In addition, salary provided
can count as a need as this is used to purchase food from stores that are
inside the stadium.

second level “safety needs” although not as important as the first level it can
be also seen as the next step for the survivability of a person. These include health,
safety against illnesses and security against harm. The Olympics committee
cannot guarantee the safety of their volunteers against harm as they are
unforeseeable, but necessary arrangements like security and nearby hospitals
reduces the effect of these occurrences.

third level “social needs” is the need to feel acknowledged and feel accepted. These
are not crucial, but they can play the most important part in the person’s
life. Examples include, friendship, intimacy and general support. If a person
does not meet these needs they are more likely to feel lonely and depressed
which can be very harmful to one’s health. If the Olympics committee does not
have unified work groups people could be left isolated which in turn can damage
their morale and could affect the efficiency of the event. Associations are put
in place to make sure no is left alienated and that sociality thrives.

fourth level “esteem” is the need of belonging. Examples include self-esteem,
recognition, achievements and self-respect. The person needs to have a sense of
non-ambiguity in their contributions towards activities and to be valued in
their workplace. If a volunteer feels deprived of these needs they could feel
weak and useless in their field. Feedback could be used to combat this as they
know where their strengths and weaknesses lie so the person can correct them.

fifth stage “self-actualisation” is the highest level which can be acknowledged
as the point where the person has reached their full potential. However, it
should not be considered the immaculate state but the stage where one continues
their progress and makes improvement. An example could be a volunteer advancing
into the hierarchical structure to supervisor or being creative in their field.

theory can help the Olympic committee’s marketers, focus their advertising on a
large market that share the same needs. However, the problem with the Maslow
theory is that some factors that motivate an individual may not be the same, as
well as measuring the amount needed to satisfy one need to move on to the next.

ERG Theory

ERG theory has three core level, existence, relatedness and growth (See
Appendix 4). This is the lessening of the number of layers by set out
previously by Maslow indicating some connexion between the middle levels. Alderfer’s
main point is that the needs don’t have to be in any order to complete the
complex need. The core level existence being food, shelter water. Relatedness
being environment, affiliation and love. Growth relating to potential, self
esteem and actualisation.  

ERG theory can be effective and dependable measures for both the levels of
desire and approval (ERG Theory, 2017, Online). The problem with the ERG theory
is that it doesn’t provide a motivational indicator for each individual but
rather a group, so the business won’t know the performance of everyone.






process of reaching shared understanding, in which members exchange
information, news, ideas and share meaning (Business Dictionary, 2017, Online).
An organisation cannot function without communication between the departments.
The model contains four parts encoding, decoding, noise and feedback (See
Appendix 3).

is the process in which a message is displayed as symbols or text which is then
used a media to send out the final message. Decoding is the person gives his own
personal meaning to whatever was conveyed. Noise is any external signal, clutter
or conflict that interferes with the message. Feedback is the receiver replying
to the sender after taking all previous steps into consideration.

is key in the Olympics committee as each volunteer needs to know understand
what the organisation is trying to do i.e. its aims and objectives. In
addition, each volunteer should know what their task is as who to report to
through the chain of command.

grapevine exists in most businesses and may do so in the Olympic committee.
This is because there is inadequate amount of information through formal
channels, so people will look for guidance elsewhere. This could be a problem
for the committee as the “guidance” may differ from the true information.
Likewise, volunteers may feel socially insecure with their manager and may
communicate with people on the same level to pursue ease and a sense of relief.
It is important that each volunteer is given the correct and adequate
information throughout formal line to complete their duties.


conclude the report has outlined one or more theories on motivation and talked
about how each one affects the Olympics Committee. Also, it also includes the
other areas that link in with motivation such as communication and why it is


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