Information and Communication Technology has become a critically important aspect in the lives of 21st century students. ACARA represents the importance of this through the Technologies curriculum. Two main frameworks SAMR and TPACK have been identified as ways to for teachers to teach and integrate technologies into the curriculum.
SAMR is a model designed specifically for integrating technology into teaching. Using the model teachers are able to plan and design lessons that target a range of technological knowledge. There are four categories; Substitution is where the technology acts as a substitute without any fundamental change. Augmentation is when the technology is still a substitute but there is functional improvement (Puentedura, 2010). Modification is where technology allows for significant task redesign (Hamilton, Rosenberg & Akcaoglu, 2016). Redefinition is when technology is used for tasks that were previously unimaginable (Puentedura, 2010). The four categories allow teachers to see how their lessons incorporate technology. Using substitution activities is fine but students need to experience the breadth of technology across all areas. The four areas are simply a way for educators to reflect on their use of technology in the classroom. TPACK stands for Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). TPACK is a framework that highlights the relationship between pedagogy, content and technology and the model suggests that an understanding of how all three can be used together is the optimum learning experience (Koehler, Mishra & Cain, 2013). The TPACK model can be used by teachers to plan and deliver lessons that integrate technology in a way that’s not trivial. TPACK does not have to be involved in every lesson but by considering it teachers are thinking more strategically about how best to use technology in the classroom (Mishra ; Koehler, 2006). A teacher wants to be teaching in a way that is constantly valuable for all students. Through the use of TPACK framework teachers can be teaching specific content while incorporating useful technology knowledge and their own pedagogical strategies.
The Technologies area of the Australian curriculum are split into two strands. Digital Technologies details how the curriculum enables students to become fluent digital technology users who use computational and systems thinking across a broad range of areas (ACARA, 2018). The rationale states the goal is to empower students to use digital technologies independently and collaboratively. The aims of the curriculum are to use computational thinking, design strategies, creativity and innovation to solve various problems. Evaluate and communicate data across various settings and demonstrate knowledge of systems thinking to analyse the implications of information systems. The structure of the digital technologies is split into knowledge and understanding and processes and production skills (ACARA, 2018). Knowledge and understanding looks at digital systems, how data is transmitted through various parts of the system such as hardware, software and networks. Representation of data focuses on learning how data is represented through digital systems. Processes and production skills lists various practices students will undertake including evaluating data, identifying problems and creating solutions and effectively communicating. Computational thinking is the overall skill students will develop meaning they see computation in the real world and are able to apply strategies to various situations. There are key concepts of the digital technologies curriculum and underpin the thinking process of students in this subject. These include abstraction, data collection, representation and interpretation and interactions and impacts (ACARA, 2018). Lastly, digital systems are present in both strands and focuses on the mechanisms that make up technologies.
The Design and Technologies rationale states that students display their ability to design and produce creative and responsive resources in ways that enable them to develop decision making skills (ACARA, 2018). Students work independently and collaboratively to manage their designs that connect to real world scenarios. The Design and Technologies curriculum aims to empower students to design and fluently use technology. Generate ideas using a variety of resources using these skills in future endeavours and identifying the societal impacts of design and technology. The Design and Technologies curriculum is separated into two strands knowledge and understanding and processes and production skills (ACARA, 2018). Knowledge and understanding has two of its own areas; Technologies and society which looks at the current and future implications of technology on a small and large scale (ACARA, 2018). Technologies contexts are split into four areas where design and production can occur including food and engineering. For the processes and productions skills the focus areas are related to strategies from the design process. They encompass the skills students will display through the design and technologies process.
Through these sources educators can develop pedagogy for the use of technology in the classroom and by aligning with the Australian curriculum can plan and execute valuable technologies lessons.