iiINTRODUCTION:Searching Search engines as an instrument of searching, are

 iiINTRODUCTION:Searching is the most used actions on the Internet. Search engines as an instrument of searching, are special sites on the Web that are designed to help people find information stored on other sites. Every user who is working on internet should have good knowledge about search engine and searching in order to explore the wonderful world that the Internet creates to a greater extent. A huge database of internet resources such as web pages, newsgroups, programs, images etc refered by search engine which helps to locate information on World Wide Web.Search engine is a software which help user to find ant information by passing query in form of keywords or phrase after that it searches for relevant information in its database and return to the user. There is large number of search engines and their features vary, It will be helpful if user learn the feature of search engine  therefore can use them better to find information needed as complete and accurate as possible. A  Web search engine is the most visible form of search engine which searches for information on the WWW .SEARCH ENGINE:A search engines are websites or software program which provide the search documents, files, and other media for keywords and returns the results if any files containing those keywords through the internet. The first search engine ever developed is considered Archie, which was used to search for FTP(File Transfer Protocal) files and the first text-based search engine is considered Veronica. Today, the most popular and well-known search engine is Google(originally called ‘BackRub’ and now a subsidiary of Alphabet) and Bing (formerly known as MSN search). There are thousands of smaller search engines like, Ask.com, Baidu, Bing, Yahoo etc,on the internet, but few are used by more than a handful of real world people. In other word a search engine is an information retrieval system designed to help find information stored on a computer system. The search results are usually presented in a list and are commonly called hits. Search engines is very time consuming to find desire information which must be consulted. If an ordinary user  want to find some texts or pictures about certain theme, first thing user will do is to visit search engine to get some good URLs about certain theme. This will happen every time when a user need some information or data about any theme. Here are some different types of the major search engines: Search Engines    Types       Google    Crawler-based search engine       AllTheWeb     Crawler-based search engine       Teoma    Crawler-based search engine       Inktomi    Crawler-based search engine       AltaVista    Crawler-based search engine       LookSmart    Human-Powered Directory       Open Directory     Human-Powered Directory       Yahoo     Human-Powered Directory, also provide crawler-based search results powered by Google       MSN Search     Human-Powered Directory powered by LookSmart, also provide crawler-based search results powered by Inktomi       AOL Search    Provide crawler-based search results powered by Google       AskJeeves    Provide crawler-based search results powered by Teoma                  Lycos    Provide crawler-based search results powered by AllTheWeb        Netscape Search    Provide crawler-based search results powered by Google     HOW TO ACCESS A SEARCH ENGINE:A users must know that there are two ways of searching: by using user’s query or by using categories. If user have keywords or phrase that best describes the theme users  need, users should use their query. But if user need some theme, and they don’t have keywords or phrase, they should use categories. If user wants some information they should type keyword or phrase in this form and click on “search”. Then only they will get search results, and they can choose URL, which is the best in their opinion. If user use categories, then they should click on category that best describes the theme of users need. User will then get subcategories and should choose some subcategory that best describes the theme. METHODS OF SEARCH ENGINE:A search engine contain millions and sometimes billions of pages, many search engines search the pages and display the results depending upon their importance. Crawler or spider is the source of all the search engine data,  which automatically visits pages and indexes their contents. Once a page has been crawled, the data contained within the page is processed and indexed. Often, this can involve the steps below.Strip out stop words.Record the remaining words in the page and the frequency they occur.Record links to other pages.Record information about images or other embedded media.When the data is collected it used to rank the page, (the most relievant data related to query comes on the first page and so on) and is the primary method a search engine uses to determine if there is a page should be shown and in what order. Once the data is processed then it is broken up into one or more files, moved to different computers, or loaded into memory where it can be accessed when a search is performed. The whole work done by crowler behind the computer it means user can not see the process of searching data. A search engine providing an interface to a group of items that users enables to specify a criteria about an item with their interest after that the engine have to find the matching items. In some text search engines user require to enter two or three words with the white space seperation, and some search engines may enable users to specify entire documents, pictures, sounds, and various forms of natural language. TYPES OF SEARCH ENGINES:Today, there are thousands of different search engines available on the Internet, each with their own abilities and features. Generally search engine devided into three parets:Crawler based search enginesHuman powered directoriesHybrid search engineMeta search engineCrawler-based search engines, such as Google, AllTheWeb and AltaVista, create their listings automatically by using a piece of software to “crawl” or “spider” the web and then index what it finds to build the search base. Crawler-based search engines are good when user have a specific search topic in mind and can be very efficient in finding relevant information in this situation. However, when the search topic is general, crawler-base search engines may return hundreds of thousands of irrelevant responses to simple search requests, including lengthy documents in which your keyword appears only once.Crawler-based search engines have three major components.1) The crawlerAlso called the spider. The spider visits a web page, reads it, and then follows links to other pages within the site. The spider will return to the site on a regular basis, such as every month or every fifteen days, to look for changes.2) The indexEverything the spider finds goes into the second part of the search engine, the index. The index will contain a copy of every web page that the spider finds. If a web page changes, then the index is updated with new information.3) The search engine softwareThis is the software program that accepts the user-entered query, interprets it, and sifts through the millions of pages recorded in the index to find matches and ranks them in order of what it believes is most relevant and presents them in a customizable manner to the user.Searching with the above mentioned three different types of search engines are different processes therefore comparing search features and search results between them will be inappropriate.Human-powered directories, such as the Yahoo directory, Open Directory and LookSmart, depend on human editors to create their listings. Human-powered directories are good when you are interested in a general topic of search. In this situation, a directory can guide and help you narrow your search and get refined results. Therefore, search results found in a human-powered directory are usually more relevant to the search topic and more accurate.Hybrid search engine, Some search engines are different on whether they are crawler-based search engines or human-powered directories like Yahoo and MSN. Although major search engines tend to become hybrid search engines providing both types of results. A hybrid search engine will still favor one type of listings over another as its type of main results.Meta-search engines, such as Dogpile, Mamma, and Metacrawler, transmit user-supplied keywords simultaneously to several individual search engines to actually carry out the search. Search results returned from all the search engines can be integrated, duplicates can be eliminated and additional features such as clustering by subjects within the search results can be implemented by meta-search engines.A meta-search engine is a search engine that searches the search engines. Each type of search engines work well for certain types of search tasks but not for all. Meta-search engines are good for saving time by searching only in one place and sparing the need to use and learn several separate search engines. “But since meta-search engines do not allow for input of many search variables, their best use is to find hits on obscure items or to see if something can be found using the Internet.” TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF SEARCH ENGINE:The following are the main different types of searching techniques:1. Keyword searching2. Phrase searching3. Boolean Search4. Truncation search5. Proximity Search6. Field-Specific Search7. Limiting Search8. Range SearchKeyword searching:It is the searching of the particular term. It is commonly used method of searching for specific information in databases. This search technique allows to retrieve all records from databases containing a particular word or a combination of word. In the keyword search what user type you will get result as far as their typing keywords.Phrase search:The phrase search is used to retrieve a string of words (instead of a single word). For example when a user looking for information on “digital library”. Each of this words when standing alone, has a different meaning and it will be retrived non relevent document. But if user put them together the meaning will be changed to the “digital library” what user’s looking. And finally user will get the document related to digital library.Boolean SearchThis is a very common search technique that combines search terms according to the Boolean logic and typically only return items which match exactly without regard to order. Three types of Boolean search are possible: AND search,OR search, and NOT search.Boolean AND search allows users to combine two or more search terms using the Boolean AND operator. A Boolean AND search will retrieve all those items where all the constituent terms occur. For example, the following search expression “Internet and WWW” will retrieve all those records where both the terms occur. Boolean ANDsearch adds more restrictions to a search expression by adding more search terms. Therefore, the more search terms are ANDed, the more restricted, or specific, will be the search, and as a result the less will be the search output. Sometime, a search may not produce any result if too many search terms are ANDed.Boolean OR search allows users to combine two or more search terms such that the system retrieves all those items that contain either one or all of the constituent terms. Thus, the following search expression “Colleges or Universities” will retrieve all those records (1) where the term Colleges occurs, (2) where the term Universities occurs, and (3) where both the terms occur. Boolean NOT search allows users to specify those terms that they do not want to occur in the retrieved records. For example, the following search expression “Search engines NOT Hotbot” will retrieve all the records on search engines except those where the term ‘Hotbot’ occurs. Boolean NOT searches add restrictions to a search by forcing the search system to discard those items were the NOT term(s) occur. Hence the search output will decrease with increase in the NOT terms. Theoperators used for conducting a Boolean search vary form one search system to the other.Truncation searching technique:The truncation search, sometimes it is called the wildcard. With many keyword searches you can type part of a word and than add asterisk (*) mark, sometimes (?) mark and sometimes the ($) symbol. It depends on what databases used what signs and symbols. The truncation search technique allows the user to reach for all terms with the root word.  The “asterisk” symbol is quite commonly used after the word to symbolize truncation. eg. Comp* , it will be generate results with computer, computing, complete, competition etc.There are three types of truncations are there:Left truncationMiddle truncation andRight truncationLeft truncation: The left truncation search technique allows to user to search using the as some words. When the exact first word is unknown or forgot the exact word.eg. *thane (Mithane , Ethane etc.) *thyle (ethyle , mithyle etc.)Middle Truncation: This types of search allows the user to search using the first few words and last few words, when the exact middle word is unknown.eg. col*r (colour, etc.) com*ter (computer)Right Truncation: This types of search allows the users to search using only the beginning of the word, when the exact ending word is unknown. The right truncation search is combined with simple Boolean searching. eg. Univer* (university, universal, universe etc.) Digit* (digital, digitization, digitalized)Proximity SearchThis search facility allows user to specify whether two search terms should occur adjacent to each other, whether one or more words occur in between the search terms,whether the search terms should occur in the same paragraph irrespective of the intervening words, and so on.The operators used for proximity search and their meaning differ from one search system to the other. A proximity search is adds more constraints by specifying the distance between the search terms, and therefore the search output becomes more specific. Field-Specific SearchA search can be conducted on all the fields in a database, or it may restricted to one or more chosen fields to produce more specific results. Specific fields and codes vary according to the search systems and database. The following examples show some valid DIALOG searches that have been restricted to some specific fields. The general format for using suffix codes is “Syntax: SELECT <term>/ xx,xx … where xx is a Basic Index field code(s)”Limiting SearchSometimes a user may want to limit a given search by using certain criteria, such as language, year of publication, type of information sources, and so on. These are called limiting searches. Parameters that can be used to limit a search are decided by the database concerned. The following are some examples of limiting searches in DIALOG:Range SearchRange search is very useful with numerical information. It is important in selecting records within certain data ranges. The following options are usually available for range searching, though the exact number of operators, their meaning etc., differ from one search system to another:APPLICATIONS OF SEARCH ENGINE:As all the engines are striving to be the most popular based on results that are closest to what the searcher is looking for, it can only be a good strategy to provide that relevant content.CONCLUSION:So when we talk about search engines today, we can almost use the words ‘Google’ and ‘search engine’ interchangeably. In fact, the word ‘search’ in common language has been replaced with ‘Google’ – “I’ll just Google the phone number for the restaurant” or “I just Googled myself, and immediately regretted it”.”Google has become so powerful that every internet startup should at least consider the question, Is this something that Google would want us to be doing? For sites that expect to get a lot of search engine traffic, this question should be a top priority. Sites that try to get more traffic from Google than they deserve, by employing search engine optimization tactics that Google doesn’t like, typically discover that such arbitrage opportunities disappear very quickly. On the other hand, sites that provide something genuinely useful will, over time, get a lot of free traffic from Google.”- Tom Murcko

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