I) In this sense, the theory of multiple intelligences

I) The preface of Multiple Intelligence Theory

In emphasize the idea of teaching
every student with different methods in education, each student has his or her
own learning characteristics. As a teacher, in addition to imparting knowledge,
our duty to find out the potential of each student and guide them to develop
them. It is even more important to find out the weaknesses of each student to
reinforce them. The theory of multiple intelligence is based on the wisdom or intelligence
of each individual student, absorbing the essence of knowledge according to
their own unique wisdom, So as to achieve the purpose of education, we have a
new interpretation of wisdom. At the same time, we also emphasize that the
human mindset and learning concept have been transformed from single ability to
multiple ability, which inspire us to use multiple ways in teaching so as to
create a learning environment conducive to the development of all kinds of
intelligence and inspire our children’s multiple wisdom.

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II) Brief introduction of Multiple Intelligence Theory

The definition of ‘intelligence’ means
the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills. The theory of multiple
intelligence proposed in 1983 by Gardner of Harvard University Institute of
Psychology. The purpose of this theory is mainly for the study of traumatic
brain patients found their differences in learning ability. However, he
emphasized that his theory should not be used to limit people to certain types
of intelligence, each with a unique set of intellectual complex systems. In
this sense, the theory of multiple intelligences is also call the complex
theory of intelligence. This theory emerged rapidly in Southeast Asia in the
1990s. Initially started in Taiwan, the education sector in Hong Kong made
active participation to relevant theories and promoted multiple intelligence
education in many kindergartens and primary schools. The educational
organizations have centered on the theory of multiple intelligences to provide
quizzes, curriculum camps, education counseling and teacher training to
students, teachers and parents of school-age children in kindergartens, primary
schools, secondary schools and universities to solve the education problems.

Traditionally, schools only emphasized
on students’ development in both logical math and Chinese (mainly writing and
reading). Traditional IQ Quiz covers only logic math, language, and spatial
intelligence. Different people may have distinct intelligence. Such as,
architects and sculptors have more sense of space (spacious intelligence),
athletes and ballet dancers have stronger body functions (limbs sensory intelligence),
and PR has stronger interpersonal intelligence, Writers introspective
intelligence stronger and so on.

According to Gardner’s theory, while developing various
aspects of students’ intelligence, schools must pay attention to each student’s
particular intelligence in certain aspects. When the students fail to keep up
with other aspects or are not good at some particular subjects, the school
should be the one who guide them to learn with their strength rather than receiving
punishments from teachers and depressed them. Everyone’s growing background,
lifestyles, life experiences are not the same, of course, there will be
different intelligence combination.

 

 

There are eight categories in this theory:

1.Verbal-linguistic—People who can make good use of spoken language and the ability to write
text, the syntax, phonology, semantics, language practical and practical
combination of ease. For example, poet and reporter

 

2.Visual-spatial–People who are intelligent in
space have high sensitivity to color, line, shape, form, space and the
relationship between them, can accurately sense the visual space, and express
what they perceive. Such people use images and images to think while studying.
Space intelligence can be divided into the image of space intelligence and
abstract space intelligence two capabilities. For example, seafarer and artist

 

3.Musical-rhythmic– People with strong music can
perceive, discern, change and express music, and are more sensitive to rhythm,
pitch, melody or tone. It is more helpful when learning is through rhythm
melody to think. For example, composer and musician

 

4.Logical-mathematical– People who work on
numbers need this kind of intelligence that uses numbers and reasoning
effectively. When they learn, they think by reasoning. They like to ask
questions and carry out experiments to find answers. They look for the
regularity and logical order of things, and are interested in the new
development of science, they are more acceptable to things that can be
measured, classified and analyzed.

 

5.Bodily-kinesthetic– Good at using the whole
body to express thoughts and feelings, and using hands to skillfully produce or
modify things. It is hard for such people to sit still for long periods of
time, like to build things, enjoy outdoor activities, and often use gestures or
other body language to talk to people. They learn through body feeling when they
study. For example, dancer or athlete

 

6.Interpersonal– Such people are more sensitive
to human facial expressions, sounds and movements, and can detect and
distinguish the emotions, intentions, motives and feelings of others. They
prefer to participate in group activities, are more willing to find someone to
help or teach people how to do things, feel comfortable in the crowd. They are
usually leaders in a group. For example, therapist and sales

 

7.Intrapersonal– Introspective people who are intelligent
are self-aware, aware of their inner emotions, intentions, motivations, temper
and desires, as well as self-discipline, self-knowledge and self-esteem. They
often think in terms of planning their own life goals, loving to be alone. Introspective
intelligence can be divided into two levels: the event hierarchy and the value
hierarchy. The introspection of the incident level points to the conclusion of
the success or failure of the incident.

 

8.Naturalistic– Ability to recognize plants,
animals and other natural environments such as clouds and rocks. Natural
intelligence and strong people, hunting, farming, biological science
performance is more prominent. Natural intelligence should be further reduced
to exploring intelligence. Including the exploration of society and exploration
of nature in two aspects. For example, naturalist  

 

 

III) Personal perspectives of this theory:

I agree with Dr. Gardner that every child is unique and every
stage is very important to them. Parents should be accompanied and observed
more of their own child. Teachers should pay more attention to identify the
strengths of the student. Let the child play intelligence in his superiority,
transform his ability into daily activity, and help them find their own life
style through observation in their daily lives. Throughout my lives in this
twenty years, I had experiences some cases which likely related to this theory
in which student cannot focus or cannot do well in academic subjects such as
Mathematics, English and Science but he perform well in the aspect of sports
(Badminton) and participate as one of the Macau Team member and represent the
team to join competitions.

 

 

There are certain criticisms
concerned on theory of MI though, it received positive response from many
educators and scholars.

 

Gardner’s
work has influenced the teaching ways of many teachers. there are different
ways to demonstrate understanding, which can arouse students’ attention and
affirm that they enjoyed the lecture. In order to understand the theory of
multiple intelligence, teachers can promote new learning methods, emphasize
lifelong learning and bolster students for their creativity and innovation. These
benefit students with different abilities, which allows them to learn in
different ways and keep up the pace, and finally develop a tight bond between
one another. Multiple intelligence allows students to find their unique and
special ways of learning. By going through these processes, teachers can carry
on the teachings so that all the learners are please to demonstrate what they
know, but not only reading and writing that make the lesson so dull.

 

IV) Advantages of Multiple Intelligence Theory

 

Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences evaluates
students in a multidimensional, comprehensive and developmental perspective. Gardiner
believes that every child is a potentially gifted child. With the
implementation of the smart curriculum, teachers find that every child has
their own “learning style,” so teachers should pay attention to
respecting students’ learning styles, recognizing the strengths of students and
giving play to the talents of students. In the specific evaluation methods,
Gardner recommended the evaluation method of “learning files”.

 

Educational Implications of Multiple Intelligence Theory

– Education should devote itself to eight kinds of intelligence

Traditional education has focused decisively on the
cultivation of language and logic-mathematics and only focuses on subjects
related to these two competencies, making it hard for students to fully develop
their wisdom in other fields. Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence points
out that people have at least eight kinds of wisdom, each of which is of equal
importance, and that they are complementary to each other and function in a
holistic manner. They have only language and logic-mathematics intelligence is
not sufficient to meet future life. Therefore, education should devote itself
to the overall development of eight kinds of intelligence.

 

– Education is highly individualized and must work in
harmony with the unique set of intelligence that each student has

When students have chances to
do hand-on experiences, they will have a chance to show and to demonstrate
their masterpieces. This can help them to build up strength and motivated them
to achieve better, it assists them to increased self-esteem and have a better
self-development. Different
students have different mental models and learn, express and recall knowledge
in distinct ways. Therefore, all students should not be educated in the same
way and with the same teaching materials. Effective teachers should meet the
different needs of students and use a variety of different methods to teach.

 

 

 

-Education should encourage students to establish their
own learning goals and programs as much as possible

Teachers should respect students’ awareness of their own
cognitive style and give them opportunities to manage their own learning.
Students should be encouraged to plan and monitor their learning responsibly so
as to help students gradually understand their intrinsic potential and develop
these potentials method. In other words, education should cultivate the inner
wisdom of students, not just learning programs.

 

-Education should encourage students to be
independent and know the ways of problem solving

Students are able to solve
problems in their lives and to enrich live experiences through teachers’
‘teaching and understanding’. It is so happy to witness the growth of students
and their positive attitude towards learning.

 

-Education provides many chances to learn instead of
one way

Some research shows that students are more willing to
learn incorporate artistic, sports, and musical activities as they perform
weakly on traditional tests and exams. They do much better in other aspects
than the academic subjects.

 

-Education is an opportunity to see the real world

Students can learn in a ‘real’ world as they can receive
much more chances to learn what they like and what they really need. They can
invent and to create as much as they can, in this situation, they are more
likely to participate in particular task. For the time being, they will be more
confident and active in doing everything.

 

 

V) Empirical Evidence from researcher (Wáng zhéf?-Master
of National Taipei University of Education Department of English Education 2012
/ 01 / 01)

One of the empirical evidence from internet prove that
students learn with multiple intelligence theory achieve better. This evidence
is from a National Taipei University of Education Department of English
Education (Master). The targets of this research are five students who are in
primary six, they both come from low-income family and under a bad learning
situation. Their family are not able to help and provide them a suitable
assistance and this make them a downcast academic result.

In this research, the researcher applied the MI theory
into the process of English teaching, execute the experimental teaching case
for a period of fourteen weeks. Before that, through ‘students’ multiple
intelligences checklist’ and ‘kids’ multiple intelligences test’ and understand
the theory, and design a teaching plan that meets the needs of individual
English and intelligence. During this process, researchers do the observation
from classroom video and case learning record, interview, Student documents and
so on to analyze the particular case to discuss whether those students ‘learning
achievements and attitudes towards English are improved or not.

The researcher analysis in two parts?

English learning achievement

i) Students improve their English vocabulary skills
through body movements

ii) Students deepen their impression of vocabulary through
drawing and space activities

iii) Students improve learning outcomes in peer
interaction

iv) Students in the natural observation activities in the
use of specific knowledge and feelings expressed

v) Students in the logic, classification, calculation and
reasoning activities to promote the use of English expression thinking

ability

vi) Students improve their language reading and memory
skills in music-smart activities

vii) Students use multiple intelligences to learn English
in situational teaching of role playing

viii) After the implementation of the course, the student
paper pen test results continue to improve

 

 

English learning attitude

i) Multiple Intelligences English teaching can enhance
students’ study confidence and interest in learning

ii) Multiple Intelligences English Teaching can improve
students’ anxiety over English learning and English assessment

iii) Multiple Intelligences English Teaching can Improve
the Practical Value of English in Students’ Hearts

iv) Multiple Intelligences English teaching allows
students to focus on learning, reduce distractions and interfere with class
activities

v) Students will be able to take part in “Course
Content”, “Self-Learning,” “English Homework, “”
motivation to learn English, “and other areas to express a positive
attitude to learning.

 

The results show that Multivariate Intelligence English
teaching has a positive impact on English learning achievements and learning
attitudes among students in the same class. Finally, the researchers make
recommendations based on the results of this study as a reference for
educational applications and future research.

 

 

V) Conclusions

A series of education reform measures are in full swing,
which affects the changes of school education methods. Although educational
authorities continuously introduce various educational reform initiatives, the
basic elements of education: the content of courses and teaching methods cannot
be ignored. Therefore, from the perspective of multiple intelligences, it is
considered that educators must understand that each student may have eight
fields of intelligence. Students must be individually disciplined, designed for
the students’ curriculum and adopted appropriate teaching methods for them of
different intelligence types. In terms of curriculum development, this paper
focus on the ways of curriculum development such as multi-disciplinary
intelligence system integration, multidisciplinary multi-intelligence system
integration, special studies. In teaching, teachers should coordinate their
learning with different teaching methods, and in the teaching process to expand
and praise the advantages of students’ intelligence. In education, we proposed
the main educational ideal of “teaching students according to their abilities.”
In the twenty-first century, the theory of multiple intelligences has provided
a theoretical basis for the concepts of individualistic teaching, and has also
aroused people’s attention to the “all things in their being are good
for something.” We
hope that our educational situation will be more respectful and understanding
of students and provide adaptability Teaching, making the quality of education
more perfect.

 

 

 

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