HEADING : Electric Guitar

The electric guitar is a very popular instrument in the music industry, used by almost every modern band in a variety of different genres of music. This instrument produces sound different from the conventional guitars although it looks very similar. It operates on the principle of magnetism and the sound this instrument produces is not very audible on its own, which is why it needs to be paired with an amplifier for the sound to be properly augmented and enjoyed. The electric guitar uses a complexed magnetism circuit that converts the movement of the strings into electric pulses that are in turn changed into actual sound. main parts of an electric guitar that produces the sound based off of the principle of magnetism are the pickups and the strings

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The components of an electric guitar.

1. Strap connected at base.
2. Tone controls for front and rear pickups.
3. Volume controls for front and rear pickups.
4. Bridge supports strings so they vibrate freely clear of case.
5. Case made from maple, rose, and mahogany woods.
6. Rear pickup.
7. Front pickup.
8. Rhythm/treble selector switch.
9. Fretboard with inlays made from mother of pearl.
10. Headstock.
11. Tuning pegs make strings looser or tighter to adjust pitch.
12. Small dots are magnets in pickups (see also inset photo to the right).
13. Pickguard (also called a scratch plate) protects wooden case from overly enthusiastic fingers plucking downward!

The sound of an electric guitar is produced when the guitar senses string vibration electronically and directs a signal to the amplifier. The movement is sensed electronically by a magnetic pickup which is located on the guitar body under the wire strings as shown below:

Photo: Electromagnetism at work: a closeup view of the pickups under the strings of an electric guitar. Photo by Arif Patani courtesy of US Navy.

The pickup of an electric guitar is basically constructed of a bar magnet that is wrapped with thousands of turns of coil fine wire. The magnets produce a magnetic field that is transferred through the strings. This causes the metal strings to turn magnetized, and when strummed, the vibration created induces a small electric current that flow through the wire pickup coils. The signals from the pick-up coil are then sent to an amplifier, who as the name implies amplifies the sound and sends it to the output that is usually a loud speaker. The following diagram illustrates the layout of the process.

i. The grey bar magnet (1) generates a magnetic field round itself.
ii. The magnetic field lines (2) expands imperceptibly upward through the metal guitar strings that are situated over the pickup.
iii. The brown Guitar string (3) close to the gains magnetism by the magnetic field. When the string is strummed or plucked (vibrates), it creates its own magnetic field.
iv. The yellow coil wire (4) that is wrapped over the pickup, senses this magnetic field. A minor electric current is created in the coil due to the magnetic field.
v. The amplifier (5) boost the low input signal so as to make it powerful enough to drive a loudspeaker.
vi. The loudspeaker (6) changes the current into sound that we can listen to and enjoy.

HEADING : Apnea Motor


HEADING Induction Stove
As it is said in the law of matter “Energy is neither created nor destroyed, it is transformed from one form to another”, energy is needed for the survival of everything in the world. Energy is gathered from a host of different sources and through different means. Plants gather their energy from harvesting natural energy from the sun. Animals on the other hand do not create their own energy they gather their energy from the consumption of food. Based off of this principle, the importance of the following device is highlighted. The induction stove is a relatively new technology as compared to the more popularly known methods of cooking eg. The gas stoves and the electric stoves. This induction stove is basically operates on the principle of induction based on faradays experiments with magnetic fields.
The induction heater is a counter top stove that uses an electromagnetic coil with a current flowing through it, which generates a magnetic field around it. When this field is cut by a conductor i.e. metal pot base heat is generated in the conductor/pot and then the heat is transferred to the food during cooking. This process is very energy efficient as it heats the pot directly and no heat transfer needs to take place as in between a flame and a pot. So it’s a fully efficient process and because of this heating time is greatly reduced

Faraday concluded that an electric current can be produced by a changing magnetic field.
• A current cannot be produced by a steady magnetic field.


A: Aluminum Plates
The non-magnetic properties of Aluminum makes it a suitable material to place beneath the burners to protect complex electronics from electromagnetic fields and from the high temperatures produced during cooking.

B: Ferrites
Ferrites underneath the copper coils resist the magnetic field, focusing the field on the pot directly above.

C: Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor
The Transistor cuts up the electric current’s wavelengths, rapidly switching the power on and off. The process impulses the pan’s electron fields in and out of alignment, producing heat through intermolecular rubbing.

D: Central Processing Unit
The CPU propels current to the respective inductor coil, which yields a magnetic field. Sensors connected to the CPU perceives and upholds the temperature of the pan.

E: Wiring to CPU ; Burners
Copper conductors, bundled to uniformly dispenses the load, conveys the current from the breaker panel to the CPU
F: Cookware Sensors
Sensors in each coil/inductor detect the temperature of the cookware on top. This safety feature ensures that the current deactivates if the cooktop overheats.

G: Inductors (Burners)
These copper coils’ magnetic fields induce heat-producing currents in the cookware.

H: Control Panel
The heat settings are displayed digitally on a numerical scale


The heat generated in the induction heater is created from the constant shifting of the magnetic fields created from the coils. the tightly wound copper coils are located under the heating pads. When AC current is fed to the coils, it induces a magnetic field that is constantly shifting because of the Alternating current created by it.
Inside each cooking zone, there’s a tightly wound coil of metal. When you turn on the power, an alternating current flows through the coil and produces an invisible, high-frequency, alternating magnetic field all around it. Unless there’s a pan on the cooking zone, no heat is produced: the cooking zone remains cold. You might be wondering why we need a high frequency. Although your home power supply alternates at about 50–60Hz (50–60 times per second), an induction cooktop boosts this by about 500–1000 times (typically to 20–40kHz). Since that’s well above the range most of us can hear, it stops any annoying, audible buzzing. No less importantly, it prevents magnetic forces from shifting the pan around on the cooktop.

HEADING : Electromagnetic gun
An electromagnetic gun or rail gun as it is more commonly know is a military weapon that uses electromagnetic force to operate. It consists of a sliding amateur that is located between two conductive rails. It is used to shoot projectiles at very high velocity. They were designed to decrease the use of propellants for weapons artillery eg. Rocket propulsion grenades. A design of the gun is hsown below:

The power supply used for this device needs to be of a very high capacity to suplly the high amperage needed to generate the high magnetic field needed to propel the projectiles.
The rails are the stationary part of the gun and are constructed of lengths of conductor material of which the preferred choice is usually copper.
The armature is usually the moving part and the gap between the rails is linked with this component. It is usually comes in two designs; a solid conductor or a conductive sabot(Projectile housing/carrier).

According to faraday’s experiments current flowing in a conductor generates a magnetic field and two magnetic fields crossing each other creates a force. It is on this principle that the electromagnetic guns’ operation is based.
The two rails of the gun mimics electric wires and when carrying an electric current a magnetic field is generated around each rail. The magnetic lines around the positive rails move in a counterclockwise direction and in the negative rail it runs in a clockwise direction. Due to the coming together of the magnetic fields, the net force generated directs the magnetic field vertically. Representation shown below.


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