ha the sub-soil. Chromic vertisols are brownish and better

of land. The woreda has more than 3427 ha of land under irrigation, 109
ha of which is irrigated by modern motor pump technology.

dense vegetation coverage includes forests, bushes, scrublands and grasslands.
Natural resources such as stone, sand, charcoal, timber and wild animals are also
found here.  As well as a survey of the land
chorabotor woreda shows that 34.9% is arable or cultivable (24.6% was under
annual crops), 20% pasture, 39.7% forest, and the remaining 15.4% is considered
degraded or built-up areas. Fruits and sugar cane are important
cash crops. Coffee is another
important cash crop of this woreda. Over 50 square kilometers are planted with
this crop.

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3.1.5. Soil

Soil is loose materials
overlaying on the surface of the earth crust. It is very essential for plant to
grow, animal and human get their food from these plants. Examining the type of
soil helps for agricultural activities while observed from pollen carrying
crops in aggravating malaria risk. The soil description for the study area is
adapted from the FAO (1990), Shape file. The types of soil distribution of the
study area are dominated by five major soil types. Those are Dystric cambisols,
pellic vertisols, orthic Acrisols, Chromic vertisols and Lithosols. Dystric
cambisols and orthic Acrisols are the major soil types of the study area.

Vertisols are heavy clay soils in flat areas.
During dry season they shrink and have deep cracks in a polygonal pattern, but
on the contrary during the wet season the clay swells and causes pressure in
the sub-soil. Chromic vertisols are brownish and better drained. But, in
general, vertisols have fairly good, but limited agricultural potentialities.
Land preparation is difficult, dry soils are hard and wet soils are sticky. The
moisture condition of the surface layer is only during for a short period
favorable to prepare land. Another difficulty is that the permeability of the
subsoil is very low. The soil has high water retention, but relatively a small
amount of water is available for plant growth. Rooting depth might be
restricted because of the swelling and shrinking properties of the soil.
Dystric Nitosols/Orthic acrisols

Nit sols are deep,
well-drained, red, tropical soils. Nitisols have high moisture storage
capacity. They are finely textured weathering products of intermediate to basic
parent rock.


Nitisols are
predominantly found in level to hilly land under tropical rain forest or
savannah vegetation. Nitosols are deep, clay red soils with an argillic B
horizon. They have rather good potentialities for agriculture. These soils have
very good physical properties. They have a uniform profile, are porous, have a
stable structure and a deep rooting volume. Their moisture storage capacity is high.


to the national census 2007, the total population of limuseka woreda is189, 463,
of whom 95,869 were men and 93,594 were women; 5,185 or 2.74% of its population
were urban dwellers. The
majority of the inhabitants were Moslem, with 62.13% of the
population reporting they observed this belief, while 19.27% of the population
said they practiced Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, and 17.87% were protestant.
As well as in choraboter the total population of the weredas was 91,738 of whom
46, 454 were men and 45,284 were women; 1043 or1.14% of its population was
urban dwellers. The majority of the in habitants were Moslem, with 65.26% of
the population reporting they observed this belief, while29.27% of the
population said the practiced Ethiopian orthodocs Christianity and 4.94% were

Farming system

In the district,
10,241 hectares (ha) are currently covered by forest and bush, while 38,874 ha
are used for crop production. There are two distinct seasons in the study area:
the rainy season starting in late March and ending in October, and the dry
season occurring during November to early March.

The farming system of the working area is mixed farming system
which includes both crop production and animal husbandry. A survey of the land
in this woreda shows that 34.9% is arable or cultivable (24.6% was under annual
crops), 20% pasture, 39.7% forest, and the remaining 15.4% is considered
degraded or built-up areas. Fruits and sugar cane are also
important cash crops.The dominant cultivated
annual crops are like cereal, legumes and purpose crops and poultry production
are, beef cattle, sheep, goat, horse and poultry production. Beef in rural area
more adapted in the area. In crops like teff, maize, wheat, bean and other
crops to local farmers are used these type of production system to increase the
source of income and living standard of the community. Coffee is also an
important cash crop for this woreda; over 50 square kilometers are planted with
this crop.

3.2. Research
design, Sources
and Types of Data

3.2.1. Research

A research design
can be understood as the framework in which data will be collected and analyzed
(Bryman, 2008). This research is, therefore, A
retrospective comparative study design will be employed using data from local
health services (health centers and health posts) from both study weredas. Records
of malaria episodes over five years will be retrieved from the local primary
health care units (PHCUs) and climatic (rainfall and temperature) study
area over 5years. As well as environmental factors responsible for this case
will be selected from their sources. These factors include, elevation
(altitude), slope, soil, distance from swamp areas, and distance from streams.

3.2.2. Sources and Types of

data required for this study will be both primary and secondary data source for
the malaria risk mapping of the study area, which will obtained from field
survey and concerned institutions. The primary sources include GPS, and
topographic information (SRTM data), topographic map (1:50,000 scale), the
secondary data will be acquired mainly from satellite images,
Remote sensing satellite images, soil map and clinical data (malaria cases)
climatic data (rainfall and temperature), of the study area. In the study multi
parameter analyzer, hardware and software will be applied. For this study, both
primary and secondary data will be use and their sources are described in the
following table.


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