Electronic 1.71 1.35*** 1.17 to 1.56 1.16* 1.01 to

Electronic devices at bedtime and daytime
screen use in relation to sleep deficit

The chances of an affected sleep pattern of more than
2 hours were determined separately and the recorded for each electronic device used.
The use of the personal computers, cell phones, games, TVs and the MP3 players
led to the rising cases of sleep deficiency in the long run.

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The use of screen time for more than
four hours after school time led to observed sleep deficit, and for each
individual device, use above 2 hours was related to sleep deficit.”Hours of
daytime screen use are presented. The odds for reporting short sleep duration
(covering 4 different categories), with 8–9?h as the reference category, was
calculated separately for each electronic device. A dose–response relationship
emerged with the highest risk of short sleep duration under 5?h, exemplified by
the association between PC use and risk of less than 5?h of sleep (OR=2.70 95%
Confidence Interval 2.14 to 3.39), while the risk for 7–8?h of sleep equaled an
OR=1.64 (95% Confidence Interval 1.38 to 1.96) ((Hysing , Pallesen ,& Stormark ,


<5?h 5–6?h 6–7?h 7–8?h OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI Electronic devices used in the last hour before bedtime PC? 2.70*** 2.14 to 3.39 2.69*** 2.09 to 3.46 2.30*** 1.90 to 2.79 1.64*** 1.38 to 1.96 Cell phone? 1.85*** 1.45 to 2.35 1.65*** 1.28 to 2.13 1.75*** 1.42 to 2.15 1.50*** 1.24 to 1.83 MP3-player? 1.52*** 1.29 to 1.78 1.46*** 1.12 to 1.73 1.33*** 1.15 to 1.53 1.19* 1.03 to 1.36 iPad or other tablet? 1.19* 1.01 to 1.41 1.29** 1.09 to 1.54 1.18* 1.92 to 1.37 1.10 0.95 to 1.28 Console? 1.40*** 1.19 to 1.64 1.38*** 1.17 to 1.64 1.27** 1.09 to 1.47 1.17* 1.01 to 1.35 TV? 1.51*** 1.29 to 1.77 1.44*** 1.22 to 1.71 1.35*** 1.17 to 1.56 1.16* 1.01 to 1.33 Daytime screen use Total screen time (4?h+)? 3.64*** 3.06 to 4.33 2.66*** 2.22 to 3.19 2.07*** 1.79 to 2.40 1.29*** 1.12 to 1.49 Console games (2?h+)? 2.03*** 1.53 to 2.69 1.73*** 1.28 to 2.35 1.58** 1.21 to 2.06 1.20 0.92 to 1.58 PC games (2?h+)? 1.90*** 1.51 to 2.38 1.22 0.95 to 1.58 1.39** 1.12 to 1.73 1.06 0.86 to 1.32 Online chat (2?h+)? 3.58*** 3.03 to 4.24 2.79*** 2.33 to 3.33 1.98*** 1.70 to 2.30 1.31*** 1.13 to 1.51 Email (2?h+)? 3.28*** 2.07 to 5.16 2.42*** 1.48 to 3.95 1.34 0.84 to 2.14 1.14 0.72 to 1.82 Other PC use (2?h+)? 2.06*** 1.74 to 2.42 2.04*** 1.71 to 2.44 1.54*** 1.33 to 1.78 1.21** 1.05 to 1.39 ·         *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001. ·         †Reference: 8–9?h. Use of electronic devices in the last hour before going to sleep and daytime screen use as risk factors for short sleep duration among girls and boys (n=9846)† Sleep duration and hours of screen use among adolescents study (n=9846)(Hysing , Pallesen ,& Stormark , 2015). The graph above is representative of "the use of screen during the daytime was representative of a similar pattern. The total time taken on the screen for more than 4 hours increased the rate of sleep deficiency by less than 5 hours (OR=3.64 95% CI 3.06 to 4.33), and on the other hand, the risk of 7 to 8 hours of sleep was at OR=1.29 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.49)" (Hysing , Pallesen ,& Stormark , 2015). Multitasking of electronic devices at bedtime The rise in the risk of SOL that exceeded 60 minutes increased among the adolescents when using four devices at once then when one device was used before bedtime (OR=1.26 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.49). The odds ratio of sleep deficiency in the case of multi-tasking between two devices or even more stood at 1.50 (95% CI 1.26 to 1.79), while in the case of more than four devices, the case was at 1.75 (95% CI 1.46 to 2.08).This was different from the case of using just one device. When comparing the between multitasking among the teens and the use of the screen, number and time taken, the odds ratios ranged between 2.2 to 2.8."The corresponding OR ranges for sleeping 5–6 h, 6–7 h and 7–8 h were 1.8–2.4, 1.9–2.1 and 1.4–1.5, respectively (all p<0.001 compared with sleeping 8–9 h) (Hysing , Pallesen ,& Stormark , 2015)." Discussion and Conclusion The study reveals that there was at least a use of one or more electronic devices in the hours before bedtime. The use of the devices before bedtime showed a positive correlation with the sleep onset latency and the sleep deficiency observed. Additionally, the correlation between sleep duration and media use was negative. The need for sleep is different among individuals, and therefore the study showed that the adolescents who spend less time sleeping, will spend more time on their devices, as opposed to individuals that may have extensive sleep needs. The use of the assumed or perceived sleep need and the deficiency associated with led to further exploration. The study showed sleep duration of 8 to 9 hours as the most preferable and the reference period for the correlation regression analysis conducted. The strong relationship between the use of the electronic devices and the sleep deficiency that resulted from it also indicated the fact that use of electronic devices related to less sleeping patterns that were opposed to the expert recommended 8 to 9 hours of sleep at night. It is, therefore, safe to conclude that use of electronic devices before and during bedtime is highly correlated to sleep deficiency and deprivation. Recommendations for the use of electronic devices in a healthy way are advocated for, especially among parents with teenagers. There need be age-specific guidelines and rules on the time and amount of exposure to electronic media, which should be available to the public. Most experts recommend people to avoid having TVs in their bedrooms. Additionally, for the other devices that were used in the study, it is wise to restrict their use in the bedroom. The impaired sleep patterns have necessitated prevention and the possible long-term effects these trends have on the health.   References Hysing M, Pallesen S,& Stormark KM, (2015).Sleep and use of electronic devices in adolescence: results from a large population-based studyBMJ  Open;5:e006748. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006748 Thomee S, Dellve L, &Harenstam A, (2010).Perceived connections between information and communication technology use and mental symptoms among young adults—a qualitative study. BMC Public Health ;10:66. 


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