An instructional approach in which children work in small
groups to read as independently as possible a text selected and introduced by
Reading textbooks that are leveled according to grade.
A mark shaped like a smile that’s placed over a vowel to
indicate that it represents a short sound.
Information from the words or sentences surrounding an
unfamiliar word that helps to clarify the word’s meaning.
A variety of language, typically representing different
social classes or geographic locations.
A sound produced when the tongue glides from one sound to
another; its represented by two vowels.
A procedure for segmenting sounds in a word that involves
drawing a box to represent each sound.
Signs, labels, and other print found in the community.
Reading and writing smoothly, quickly, and with
A morpheme that can stand alone as a word.
A written representation of a sound using one or more
A phonics term that refers to sound-symbol relationships.
A common English word, usually a word among the 100 or 300
most common words.
Words that sound alike and are spelled alike but have
Intense, individualized instruction for struggling readers
to solve reading problems and accelerate their growth.
A method of estimating the difficulty level of a text.
An approach to reading instruction in which children meet
in small groups to read and respond to a book.
A horizontal mark that’s placed over a vowel to indicate
that it represents a long sound.
A strategy for categorizing and analyzing a child’s oral
A syllable ending in a vowel sound
The spelling system
A sound; it’s represented in print with slashes.
Predictable relationships between phonemes and graphemes.
A rime used for word-family decoding and spelling
The sound system of language.
The social use system of language.
The ability to orally read sentences expressively, with
appropriate phrasing and intonation.
An approach to reading instruction in which children
independently read or reread self-selected texts at their reading levels.
A cognitive structure or mental file.
Groups of words