DECLARATIONI

DECLARATIONI, Serge UWANYIRIJURU, declare that the above action research is my original work and has not been presented for a degree in any other University.

386715068580005714978105Date:
Serge UWANYIRIJURU

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APPROVALI, TWILINGIYIMANA Chrysogone, certify that this action research report has been done under my supervision and submitted with my approval.

32575501276355715013716100Date:
Mr. Chrysogone TWILINGIYIMANA

DEDICATIONI dedicate this work to my dearest mother, Marie NYIRANSABIMANA, who encourage me to make education the foundation of my life, and who supported me emotionally during the tough times of my years of study. This work is also dedicated to my sister Venerande MUSHIMIYIMANA, for her unconditional love and understanding.

ACKNOWLEGMENTSI sincerely thank my Creator, the Almighty God, who gave me the physical, mental strength and good health to undertake and accomplish this work.

I wish to express my sincere appreciation to my supervisors Mr. Chrysogone TWILINGIYIMANA for his professional guidance throughout my research.

I would wish to acknowledge, all my family members for their everyday assistance in my studies.

I am grateful to all Lectures of University of Rwanda- College of Education for their assistance in my studies, and also grateful to Rector and Teachers from Saint Ignatius High School for their significant contribution of this work.

I wish also to express my deepest appreciation to my long term friends and colleagues Mr. Pacific UMUGIRANEZA, Mr. Alex NIYOMUGABO and Mr. Nelson TUYISHIMIRE for their encouragements.

There are many other people who cheered me on to complete this course and it is not possible to mention all of them- a big thank you to all.

God bless you all.

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study is to determine the causes of poor performance for the students of senior two at SAINT IGNATIUS HIGH SCHOOL. The objectives that will guild a researcher throughout the work are to: Find out the causes of poor performance in mechanics among the students of senior two at Saint Ignatius High School, establish the effects of poor performance to the students of senior two at Saint Ignatius High School, to suggest way of improving senior two students ‘performance in mechanics .The study will be guided with the following the following questions: What are the causes of poor performance in mechanics among the senior two students? What are the effect of this poor performance in their progress, and what measure can be put in place so as to improve students’ performance in the topic? Various instruments will be used as a practical means of collecting data related to strategies of improving performance among senior two students doing physics especially in mechanics as follows: students ‘questionnaires, teachers’ questionnaires , library research, observation, documental analysis. This study will be carried out at Saint Ignatius High School at Gasabo District, Kimironko sector and the population of this consists of senior two students doing physics together with the subject teacher. The sample of the study is made of two classes of senior two A&B and 1 teacher who is male.

Table of contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u DECLARATION PAGEREF _Toc520726255 h iAPPROVAL PAGEREF _Toc520726256 h iDEDICATION PAGEREF _Toc520726257 h iiACKNOWLEGMENTS PAGEREF _Toc520726258 h iiiABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc520726259 h ivSECTION 1: GENERAL INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc520726260 h 11.1 Background of the study. PAGEREF _Toc520726261 h 11.2 Statement of the problems PAGEREF _Toc520726262 h 21.3. Objectives of study PAGEREF _Toc520726263 h 21.4. Research Questions. PAGEREF _Toc520726264 h 21.5. Scope and limitation of study. PAGEREF _Toc520726265 h 31.6: Significance of the study PAGEREF _Toc520726266 h 3SECTION 2: LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc520726267 h 42. 1. MECHANICS PAGEREF _Toc520726268 h 42.1.1. Kinematics PAGEREF _Toc520726269 h 42.1.2. Dynamics PAGEREF _Toc520726270 h 42.1.3. Statics PAGEREF _Toc520726271 h 52.2. UNITS OF MECHANICS LEARNED PAGEREF _Toc520726272 h 52.2.1. Linear motion PAGEREF _Toc520726273 h 52.2.2. Frictional force PAGEREF _Toc520726274 h 62.2.3. Pressure PAGEREF _Toc520726275 h 62.2.4. Pascal’s principle and its application PAGEREF _Toc520726276 h 62.2.5. Energy PAGEREF _Toc520726277 h 7SECTION 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc520726278 h 83.1. Introduction PAGEREF _Toc520726279 h 83.2. Research design. PAGEREF _Toc520726280 h 83.3. Target group. PAGEREF _Toc520726281 h 83.4. Sampling techniques. PAGEREF _Toc520726282 h 93.5. Research instruments. PAGEREF _Toc520726283 h 93.5.1. Questionnaires PAGEREF _Toc520726284 h 93.5.2. Interview PAGEREF _Toc520726285 h 93.5.2. Library research. PAGEREF _Toc520726286 h 103.5. Methods of data analysis and interpretation PAGEREF _Toc520726287 h 103.5.1. Coding PAGEREF _Toc520726288 h 103.5.2. Quantitative methods PAGEREF _Toc520726289 h 103.5.3. Comparison of the causes and strategies to improve performance in mechanics among S2 students PAGEREF _Toc520726290 h 10SECTION4: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION PAGEREF _Toc520726291 h 114.0. Introduction PAGEREF _Toc520726292 h 114.1. Sample description PAGEREF _Toc520726293 h 114.2. Comparisons of answers on causes and strategies from students and teachers’ views PAGEREF _Toc520726294 h 114.3. The evidence of improvement PAGEREF _Toc520726295 h 14SECTION 5: GENERAL CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS PAGEREF _Toc520726296 h 155.1. Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc520726297 h 155.2. Recommendation PAGEREF _Toc520726298 h 16REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc520726299 h 17APPENDICES PAGEREF _Toc520726300 h 18Appendix1: Students Questionnaire PAGEREF _Toc520726301 h 18Appendix 2: Teacher Questionnaire PAGEREF _Toc520726302 h 19Appendix 3: A Sample of Lesson Plan PAGEREF _Toc520726303 h 20Appendix 4: Scheme of work PAGEREF _Toc520726304 h 23Appendix5: First Monthly report PAGEREF _Toc520726305 h 29Appendix 6: Second Monthly report PAGEREF _Toc520726306 h 31Appendix 7: Third Monthly report PAGEREF _Toc520726307 h 33

SECTION 1: GENERAL INTRODUCTIONSaint Ignatius High School is a private Jesuit secondary school which started in 2012 and is located in Kigali City, in Gasabo District, in Kimironko Sector. It has day scholars in Ordinary level and Advanced level with different combinations.

The internship was scheduled between 22 February 2018 and 30 July 2018 divided into two periods: the first consisted in observation and the second was a practical work.
The practical work permitted the intern to carry out a research on strategies to improve the students’ performance in mechanics, particularly those of Senior Two. The researcher observed the problem of performance in mechanics for the students of senior two in the subject of physics just in the first week through a variety of recommended and efficient teaching/ learning methods like the learner centered method, group discussions and presentation in class, questioning and answering, group discussions and presentation in class, brainstorming, homework, quizzes then in examinations in first homework on 10 out 43 students didn’t submit their homework 15 of those who submitted they used to copy the answer of their classmates 4 for those one who submitted failed this was for the case of S2B. This situation caused the researcher to suggest and apply strategies in order to uplift students’ performance in mechanics.

1.1 Background of the study.During the internship, the researcher had to deal with the problem of poor performance among senior two students in mechanics. The recent history of Rwanda, which culminated in the Genocide of 1994, devastated the Rwandan economy and destroyed much of infrastructure. Tragically the loss of up to one million people left the human resources base, in particular of trained personnel in a personnel a desperate situation. 24 years on the new government has succeeded in rehabilitating infrastructure, restoring public services including roads and so on. Rwanda has no appreciable natural resource mineral base. The Government of Rwanda realized therefore that in order to develop the country, it needs to develop the human resources base in particular in the area of science and technology. The low performance students in mechanics which can totally affect them to hate the courses of physics in general this can be a great challenges to the country and to miss the future scientists, engineers ,the people to work in mechanics industries( e.g: vehicles fabrication industries), the astronomers as found on the application of mechanics in everyday life. As the Rwandan said it well” if you want a tree to grow straight, you have to start from planting the seeds properly” in this context, it indicates that “if want the scientists, engineers, astronomers etc., starts by facilitating those students of lower levels to love studying sciences”. As mechanics is concerned, it is of great important to start by improving their performance as the first motivation for every student to continue to excel in school and in outdoor activities.

1.2 Statement of the problemsSince the intern started teaching and testing the learning, process among students of senior two doing Physics, the problems of low performance in mechanics was identified.

The evidence noted was that at the beginning students lacked interest in studying, lack of motivation, not doing homework well and even those who tried, the use to copy the answers of the colleagues, what very bad in this case is that more than 20% of the whole students they fail to submit the homework, this also continues to affect them to get low marks in quizzes and in the exam. Homework done in the first week presented an average of success of 40 % only. Such diagnosis caused the researcher to look for strategies to improve performance among senior two students in physic especially in mechanics.

1.3. Objectives of studyTo achieve this study the following objectives that guided the work:
To find out the causes of poor performance in mechanics among the students of senior two.

To establish the effects of poor performance to the students of senior two.

To suggest way of improving senior two students’ performance in mechanics.

1.4. Research Questions.This research was guided by the following questions:
What are the causes of poor performance in mechanics among the senior two students?
What are the effects of this poor performance in their progress?
What measure can be put in place so as to improve students’ performance in mechanics?
1.5. Scope and limitation of study.The study had a number of limitations.
First, it was not possible to explore all the variables that affect the students’ performance. For example the homes–school relations to the learners’ poor performance.
Lack of the time because the researcher had other duties like preparing lessons, teaching and so on.

Lack of well-equipped library for research purposes which caused the researchers to go to other schools looking for information.

Economic constraints: Money for travel, printing was a problems.

1.6: Significance of the studyThis research is of greater importance to a variety of people that are concerned with the teaching and learning process not only at Saint Ignatius High School, but also all stakeholders in Educations. These are:
Students of senior two will improve on their performance in mechanics
Saint Ignatius high school and other schools will be aware of the real causes of poor performance and strategies or measures to be taken to ensure that the problem of low performance in mechanics reduced especial for all learners ‘country reach in senior two.

Physics teachers will put into practice strategies for the success of students in mechanics.

Others researchers will benefit from it in the different was as it acts as the supplement. And then – administration at Saint Ignatius High Scholl will benefit from this as they will look for ways of equipping libraries with up- dated textbooks, cooperating with the parents in exploiting such strategies and so on.

SECTION 2: LITERATURE REVIEWThis section defines the key concepts used in this action research. It explains also the units of mechanics learned by senior two students of Saint Ignatius Secondary School.

2. 1. MECHANICSGiancoli (1980:19) defines mechanics as” the study of the motion of the objects and, the related concepts of the force and energy.”
Mechanics is one of the topic in physics and contributes significantly to global socioeconomic transformation through its discoveries (Nzarora, 2017).
Application of mechanics knowledge is evident in industries such as engineering, transport (automobiles, trains, planes, etc.), medicine and information and communication technology (ICT). Some discoveries based on the mechanics knowledge include television, computer, nuclear weapons advancements, which led to industrialization.
According to Nelson, Kamuala, & Kafuluta (2013), mechanics is also defined as a part of physics that can be divided into three sub-topics namely, kinematics, dynamics, and statics
2.1.1. Kinematics
Nelkon, kamula, and Kafuluta (2013) define kinematics as the study of motions of the objects regardless of their cause.
2.1.2. Dynamics
According to Giancole (1980), Nelkon, kamuala and kafuluta, (2013) dynamics refers to the study of motions of the objects and their cause or force and why objects move as they do.

Nelkon and Parker (1958) also argued that dynamics deals with the velocity, acceleration, force and energy of large objects such as cars and aero planes and tiny objects such as the electrons in your television set which produce the pictures.
They also add that dynamics helps to investigate the motion of the athletes or the motion of a ball bowled in cricket or hit in golf. Before you play a game like football or tennis, you need to learn the basic skills and how to apply them. In the same way, we start with main points in dynamics and how are applied in the velocity, acceleration, free-fall in gravity, and motion graphs.

2.1.3. Statics
Nelkon, Kamuala, and Kafuluta, (2013) define statics as part of mechanics which mainly deals with the conditions for the body to be in equilibrium or stability.

2.2. UNITS OF MECHANICS LEARNED
Units of mechanics learned by students are quantitative analysis of linear motion, frictional force, pressure, Pascal’s principle and its application and energy
2.2.1. Linear motion
According to Atknson, Kamuala, Fafuluta, Sang ; Mbuga (2010) a body is said to be in motion when the distance between the body and a specified frame of reference is changing with the time.
One purpose of mechanics is to describe the motion of objects quantitatively -how fast they move and how far they move in a given amount of time (Holliday, Resnick ; Walker, 2005).
Geologists use this knowledge to measure tectonic- plate motion as they are attempt to predict earthquakes.
Medical researchers need this mechanics knowledge to map the blood flow through a patient when diagnosing a partially closed artery, and motorists use it to determine how they might slow sufficiently when their radar detector sounds a warning.

When a body moves in a straight line, then we say that is executing linear motion (Nzarora, 2017). Nzarora (Op. Cit.) adds also that teacher activities and learner activities are very important in the lesson of linear motion.
Teacher may use whole –class orientation, group work, each group should different types of linear motion, kinematics and free fall motion under gravity, laboratory practices.
2.2.2. Frictional force
Frictional force is defined as” the force that opposes the motion of an object as it moves across a surface or as it makes an effort to move across it (Jewett, 2004).
Forces of friction are very important in our everyday lives. They allow us to walk or run and are necessary for the motion of wheeled vehicles (Nzarora, 2017).

Different activities of teacher and learners should be done including some practical labs both as whole class orientation, group work, each group should discuss different types of frictional forces and their applications.

2.2.3. Pressure
The concept of pressure plays a very important role in applications such in thermodynamics, aerodynamics, fluid mechanics, deformations and many more (Jawett, 2004).
It is vital for senior two student to have a good understanding of pressure in order to excel in any field that uses pressure as a base concept.
Throughout this unit a teacher may use different teaching and learning methods to ensure that that every learner should be able to define pressure and explain factors affecting.
Nzarora L.L (2017) argued that a good teaching methods are those that keep learners motivated and engaged throughout the lesson.

2.2.4. Pascal’s principle and its applicationPascal’s principle states that a pressure applied to a confined fluid increases the pressure throughout the fluid by the same amount. Use god teaching methods that keep learners motivated and engaged throughout the lesson.
Teacher can suggest observation and demonstration activities. Teacher can divide the class into groups and make sure he/she balance gender and learners with disability to discuss about the application of Pascal’s principle (Nzarora, 2017).
He also adds that a teacher can interchange the brainstorming and question-and –answer methods when he /she is teaching. When they are in lab, teacher can lead (guide) learners to verify the Pascal’s principle and let them to discover why the principle can be used in elevation of the car. This increases the understanding and increases the creativity of learners.
The role teacher as facilitator is to guide them through the activity using provided materials and help to draw the suitable conclusion of their findings (Ellerani, & Gentoli, 2012)
2.2.5. Energy
Our civilization is based on acquiring and effectively using energy (Holliday, Resnick, & Walker, 2007).
For example, everyone knows that when you go to school or to the shops, there are things to carried .all this takes energy. Even thinking, when you are studying or doing your homework uses energy (Atkinson, Kamuala, Kafuluta, &Mbuga, 2010).

Teacher need to use different methods that will keep learners motivated and engaged throughout the lesson and know where the energy we need four our daily lives comes from and appreciate the important of energy in our everyday life.

SECTION 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1. IntroductionFor the completion of any research, one who conducts a study should select appropriate methods to be used in order to reach reliable and valid findings. This chapter shows how the research was carried out. It contains research design, target population, sampling techniques and research tools.

3.2. Research design.A research design is a framework or structure according to which research will be done in such a way that relevant information is collected using the minimum money and time (Ngema, 2016)
The study was designed with the objective of establishing the causes of poor performance in mechanics with Saint Ignatius High school as a reference. Williamson (1982) described a research design as a plan which determines clearly how data relating to a given problem should be collected and analyzed. This enabled the researcher to put all data together from which he produced a final reliable report.

3.3. Target group.This research was carried out at Saint Ignatius High School, Gasabo District, Kimironko Sector and the population of this consists of senior two students together with their subjects’ teachers. The sample of the study is made of 2 classes both S2A&S2B.

Table 1: The target group of the study
Class Teachers 69723029972000-762028130500Number of Girls Students Boys Total
Senior two A 1 teacher for both S2A&B 13 22 35
Senior two B 15 28 43
Total 28 50 78
3.4. Sampling techniques.For this study, researcher used the size of two classes of senior two at Saint Ignatius High School. Whereby quantitative, qualitative and analytical methods were used.

The quantitative approach was applied by arranging data from respondents into categories before carrying out analytical approach to analyze the perceptions of both students and teachers, with regard to causes of low performance in mechanics courses among senior two students, an activity which helped to practically discover what the teaching and learning requires to improve the students’ performance specifically in mechanics.

This was achieved through distribution questionnaires to students and teachers, interview with the parents, and use other resources materials such as textbooks and dissertations among others.

The strength of sample was composed of two classes of senior two and one male teacher. This to say that on 78 students found in that two classes 83 were the respondents together with one teacher responsible of physics.

3.5. Research instruments.Various instruments were used as a practical means of collecting data related to the strategies of improving performance in mechanics among senior two students at Saint Ignatius High School, as follows:
3.5.1. QuestionnairesQuestionnaires were prepared for the participants to collect data on the students and teachers feelings towards the causes of poor performance and reasons that contribute towards the poor performance in the mechanics courses. Questionnaires contained closed ended questions.

3.5.2. InterviewFor interview, guided discussions between the researcher and parents took place at school. This intended to collect data orally from the parents who have the children in senior classes about their role for improving their children’s academic performance.

3.5.2. Library research.Both electronic and the library of Saint Ignatius High School as well as internet research and Information from textbooks was also used to enable the researcher carry out a reliable work.
3.5. Methods of data analysis and interpretation3.5.1. CodingThis consists of classifying respondents’ answers into categories for effective analysis, interpretation and judgments so as to technically reveal realities of existing problem already seen by researcher on his field of action.

3.5.2. Quantitative methodsA statistical analysis in a technical manner by researcher allowed him to put information from data instruments into tabulated, graphs, then into tables showing frequencies and percentages.

3.5.3. Comparison of the causes and strategies to improve performance in mechanics among S2 studentsResearcher had to compare questions and answers from his respondents both students and teachers so as to see wither results, they have provided have similarities, as seen in the next chapter.

SECTION4: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.0. IntroductionThis section is comprised of the presentation, analysis and interpretation of the collected data. The findings are related to the research objectives and questions. Analyzed data is presented and interpreted accordingly.

4.1. Sample descriptionBefore answering the questions, respondents were called to mention their gender, which helped the researcher to assess the causes and the strategies from the respondents basing on their behaviors that may occur throughout learning processes in relation to gender.

Table2: Gender distribution
class Gender Frequency percentage
S2A -6731138036400Male
Female 22
13 28.2%
16.6%
S2B -5778527241500Male
Female 28
15 35.9%
19.2 %
TOTAL 78 100%
Sources: primary data
As seen in the above table, the sample includes 50 males (64.1%) and 28 females (35.9%) from students of senior two classes.

4.2. Comparisons of answers on causes and strategies from students and teachers’ views On the question to know the views of students about the causes of poor performance in mechanics, the following table shows answers given by respondents.

Table3: Results from answers given by students about cause of poor performance in mechanics among S2 students.
cause Frequency Percentage
1.Class size 62 80%
2.Teaching and learning methodology 50 64%
3. Language barrier 0 0%
4.Lack of enough textbooks 49 63%
5.Lack of motivation 42 52%
6. Few homework and exercises 52 67%
7. Lack of mathematics skills needed to learn mechanics 40 51%
8. Lack of parents support 43 53%
9.Peer groups 39 50%
10. Negative attitude towards to physics subjects 60 77%
11. Few practical works 70 90%
12. Change of physics syllabus 7 6%
Sources: primary data
This shows that the students who were the respondents have same views at 80% on the reasons for poor performance.
The table below shows the views of teachers about causes of low performance in mechanics.

Table 4: Results of the answers given by teacher about the poor performance in mechanics
Cause rating frequency percentage
1.Lack of enough text book Strongly degree 1 100%
2.No presence of parents support teacher in education of their children No opinion 1 100%
3. language used in teaching is appropriate for all students to understand Strongly agree 1 100%
4. Implementation of new curriculum causes confusion. degree 1 100%
5.Negative attitude of students to subjects of physics agree 1 100%
6.class size Strongly agree 1 100%
7.Disruptive behavior agree 1 100%
8. peer group agree 1 100%
9.senior two students miss some skills of mathematics to succeed mechanics agree 1 100%
Source: primary data.

Table 5. Results from answers given by the teacher about strategies that can be used so that S2 students can excel in mechanics.

Strategy/ measures rating frequency percentage
1.Reading and equipping library with enough with enough new books Strongly agree 1 100%
2.Learning in groups discussion and presentation Strongly agree 1 100%
3. Involving parents in teaching and learning Strongly agree 1 100%
4.Reducing the class size Strongly agree 1 100%
5. Use media in teaching and learning Strongly agree 1 100%
6.constant revision Strongly agree 1 100%
7. Increase the practical activities both in class and in physics lab. Strongly agree 1 100%
The table above shows that the teacher of physics has the same view as that of the researcher at 100% about strategies to improve the performance of senior two students in mechanics.

4.3. The evidence of improvementThe evidence of the study is a proof or achievement that consists of comparison between the data from the problem that were diagnosed for the first time and the data obtained in the last evaluation of the strategy. The researcher wanted to compare the results after putting in place the suggested measures and the results before the researcher diagnosed the problem to ensure that the improvement has attained.

756920762000176212552070000ClassClass size 65023952197000 Problem diagnosis level in percentages
FailurePassed 57658056007000Improvement level in percentages
FailedPassed Percentage improved
S2A35 40.3%59.7% 11.4%88.6% 28.9%
S2B43 55.8%44.2% 35.5%64.5% 20.3%
On the above table shows how the improvement that has made for S2 students in mechanics after researcher worked closely with them and apply different strategies suggested in the above table.

SECTION 5: GENERAL CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONSThis section presents conclusion and recommendations that came out of the research analysis on strategies to improve performance in mechanics among S2 students.

This was in accordance with the researcher’s objectives which were to identify causes of poor performance in mechanics among S2 Students and suggest ways through which these cause could be dealt with so that mechanics cause can be taught and learnt well.

5.1. ConclusionThe findings of this study indicate that there is significant effect of performance in mechanics of S2 Students due to lack of enough teaching and learning resources, big number of students in class, lack of enough concern and presence of the parents in education of their children etc. Mechanics courses in S2 classes can be improved if the students are involved in practical lessons under the guidance of well trained and qualified personnel. This will increase their motivation hence change their attitude not only on mechanics course but on physics subjects hence raise the performance.

The main conclusions drawn from this study are:
Availability of teaching and learning materials generally affects the performance of S2 students in mechanics. The materials should be made available and they should be of good quality in order for them to produce accurate results during practical session.

Parents must always involve in education of their children. Research shows that the children need enough concern and presence of the parents to excel in school and the outdoor activities.

The findings of this study indicated that one of the major difficulties that the teachers face while teaching mechanics is the students’ negative attitude towards physics subjects. They have a perception that the physics is always tough compared to the other subjects which discourages them hence affecting their performance.

5.2. RecommendationIt is therefore recommended that in this study,
Students should aim higher in learning activities and feel proud of learning physics among other subjects. They should also avoid bad groups at school and bad behavior in class. They are also required to revise their summary notes, read different textbooks before attending the new lesson.

The low achievements level in mechanics for S2 Students demands for revolutionary ideas to motivate students in learning physics. Teachers should use modern methods of teaching including use of computers and practical activities in teaching mechanics in order to motivate and sustain students’ interest in physics as far as possible in most senior physics topics.

Parents should provide learning materials of physics to their children and social supports. They are also recommended to always do a follow up to children about their progress in lessons as a whole and not only in physics but also other subjects.

Teachers should give homework at the end of the lesson and make sure that each parent signs on submitted homework and continuous tests of physics once in two weeks. They should also students to revise their notes of physics before and after classes. Teachers should teach with total commitment and integrity towards achievement of quality education.

The governments, parents, school administration and society at large should work together to ensure that teaching and learning environment( class size) is conductive to the teachers and students for effective learning to take place. They should give support by providing the necessary materials and equipment required which includes well equipped laboratories and libraries.

REFERENCES Atkinson,A., Kamuala,J., Kafuluta,J.,Sang,D., &Mbuga, J.M.(2010).New physics: students’ book for S1,S2and S3.London: Pearson Education Limited.
Ellerani, P. &Gentile,M.(2012). The role of teachers as facilitators to develop empowering leadership and school communities supported by method of cooperative learning. Pecedia Social and behavior sciences. University of Bolzano.

Giancoli, D.C. (1980).Physics principles with applications (6thed.).

Holliday, D., Resnick, R., &Walker,J.(2007). Fundemental of physics (10th).

http://.www. flexploring.com/ energy / definition.htm/ (Accessed on 4/May/2018)
Jawett, S. (2004). Physics for scientists and engeneers. Sixth edution.

Nelkon, M., Kamuala, J., &Kafuluta,J.(2013). Advanced level physics: students’book for S5. Pearson Education Limited.

Nelkon,M., &Parker,P.(1958).Advanced level physics(7thed.). London: Pearson Education Limited
Ngema, M.H. (2016). The facts that causes the poor performance in science at Ingwavuma Circuit: University of South Africa.

Nzarora, L.L. (2017).Physics of Rwanda secondary schools: Teacher’s guide senior two. Kigali: Fountain Publisher
Nzarora,L.L.(2017).Physics for Rwanda Secondary Schools: Learner’s book senior two. Kigali:Fauntain Publisher
Williamson,J.B. (1982). The research craft (2nd).Boston: little, Brown.

APPENDICES Appendix1: Students QuestionnaireDIRECTIONS
1. This questionnaire asks you to answers the questions in the respect to the way you view mechanics course performance in your class. It is not a test and there is no rights or wrong answer.

2. Please tick your most appropriate answer.

Disagree-No, Agree –Yes
Cause yes No
1.Physics teacher contributes toward poor performance 2.Teacher methods are not appropriate 3.The examination does not correspond with the content 4.The resources are not sufficient 5.Performance in mechanics is not affected by other subjects like mathematics 6. There is no support from the parents and teachers 7.class size contributes to the poor performance 8. Language used in teaching is too difficult to understand. 9. There some chapter of S1 that you did not study very well. 10.We do not fit in new curriculum program( competence –based curriculum)
Appendix 2: Teacher QuestionnairePlease tick the appropriate box
Strongly disagree-SN, Disagree-D, No opinion-N, Agree-A, Strongly agree-SA
Cause SN D N A SA
1.The resources are available enough 2.Class size contribute to the poor performance of the learners in mechanics 3.Language used in teaching is appropriate for all students to understand 4.The materials needed to implement physics new syllabus are not available in school 5.parents support their children in their studies 6. Physics new curriculum is confusing both students and teachers 7. Negative attitude towards physics subjects affect performance. 8.Physics teacher is always well prepared in teaching both theory and practical 9. Senior two students miss some skills of mathematics to succeed mechanics. 10. They do not have the prerequisites to succeed mechanics. Appendix 3: A Sample of Lesson PlanSchool name: Saint Ignatius High School Teacher’s name: Serge UWANYIRIJURU
Term Date Subject Class Unit no Lesson Duration Class size
2nd 22/05/2018 PHYSICS S2A 4 40 min 35
Type of special educational needs and number of learners in each category Key Unit competence By the end of this unit the learner should be able to define pressure and explain the facts affecting it.

Title of the lesson Density and Pressure in Solids and Fluid
Instructional objectives At the end of this lesson the learner should be able to:
Define Hydrostatics
Explain the factors that affects the pressure in liquid
Solve the problems using pressure= Density x height x gravity
Class location In classroom
Learning Material Pen, exercises notebook, chalk ,and board
References Nzarora,L.L.(2017). Physics for Secondary School(S2) learners ‘book
Nelkon& Parker: Advanced level Physics
Timing for each steps Description of Teaching and learning activities Generic competences & cross cutting issues short explanation
Teacher’s activities Learner’s activities Introduction
5 min Ask whole class the questions about the last lesson(pressure in solids) Learners with active participation, try to answer what is pressure.

S.I Unit of pressure and mention mathematical formula of pressure=
FA Generic competence:
Critical thinking: learners analyze and relate the knowledge to come out with the definition of hydrostatics
Lesson Development
30 min Teacher help the learner to define the term HYROSTATICS.
Teacher ask whole class to define the word fluids and give same examples of fluids
Teacher help the learner to introduce a new formula of pressure for the fluids and explain the factors that affects pressure in liquid. Learners are answering
HYRO= WATER
STATIC= NOT MOVING
Answers of the learners
Fluids are the liquids and gases
Ex: water and air
Learners write some explanations in their notebooks and try to apply the formula of pressure for the fluids.

P=Density x height x gravity -communication
Learner try to answers the question to improve their communication skills
Conclusion
5min Teacher write a question on the board each student should try in his /her exercises notebook to apply a formula
P=d x h x g Teacher write a question on the board each student should try in his /her exercises notebook to apply a formula
P=d x h x g Critical thinking and problem solving
Teacher self-evaluation Well done

Appendix 4: Scheme of workAcademic year: 2018 Term: 2 School: St Ignatius High School Subject: Physics
Teacher’s Name: Serge UWANYIRIJURU Class+ Combination: S2
Date & number of the lesson( periods) in a week Units + Key units competencies Lesson + Evaluation Learning objectives Teaching methods & techniques + Evaluation procedures Resources & References Observations
From 16/04 To 20/04 Subtopic: Forces
UNIT 3:
Friction Force
Lesson
coefficient of friction forces
– factors affecting friction force
– other resistance force
-measure of static and dynamics forces
General Objectives
Describe friction forces
State advantages and disadvantages of friction forces
Determine the coefficient of friction -perform experiments
-group discussions
-solve problems related to friction forces
Nelkon & Parker: advanced level Physics
– Halliday&Resnick:
Fundamentals of physics
-New physics S1,2,3
Longman-pearson
–Phet simulations done
23/04 to 27/04 UNIT4:
Density and Pressure in Solids and fluids
? Force acting on a surface
? Definition of pressure and its S.I. units
? Pressure in solid
? Pressure in fluids liquids and gases
? Define and explain the pressure
? Give the relationship between force, pressure and area
Solve problems involving equation of pressure.
? Carry out experiments in groups to determine the pressure exerted surface area and report.
done
30/04 to 04/05 Archimedes principles, sinking and floating.
? Atmospheric pressure and height/altitude above sea level Explain measurement of atmospheric pressure using liquid in glass barometer.
? Explain the functioning of aneroid barometer. Measure air using pressure simple manometer.
? Measure atmospheric pressure using barometer

done
From 07/05 To 11/05 Subtopic: Pressure
UNIT 5: measuring liquid pressure with manometer ? Definition of hydrostatic Pressure.
? Description of equilibrium of a liquid at rest in container.
? Description of equilibrium of a liquid in communicating container.
General Objectives:
? Describe a manometer.
? Explain the principle of a manometer.
? Explain hydrostatic pressure and atmospheric pressure and their measurement ? Working in small groups and do an experiment to determine pressure using a manometer.
–Perform in experiment in groups to demonstrate that pressure in fluid depends on the height/ column not on the shape of the vessels. -Nelkon & Parker: advanced level Physics
– Halliday&Resnick:
Fundamentals of physics
-New physics S1,2,3
Longman-pearson
–computer simulations done
14/05 to 18/05 UNIT6: Application of Pascal’s principle
? Static pressure in fluids at rest
? Transmission of pressure in fluids. (Pascal’s principle)
? Applications: hydraulic press, hydraulic brakes, hydraulic lift pump, Water Towers, hydraulic jack.
? Explain static pressure of fluids at rest.
? Describe transmission of pressure in static fluids.
? Explain Pascal’s principle.
? State applications of Pascal’s principle. ? Discus how pressure is transmitted in fluids.
? Demonstrate Pascal’s principle using enclosed fluid.
? Devise experiment to illustrate the functioning of hydraulic brakes.
? Discuss in groups the functioning of hydraulic car jack.
done
21/05 to 25/05 UNIT7:
Archimedes’ principle and atmospheric pressure – Atmospheric pressure
? Archimedes principle in fluids: up thrust, factors affecting up thrust, state principle and formula.

? Applications of Archimedes principle
? Explain atmospheric pressure and state its units.
? Explain buoyant/up thrust force and Archimedes principle in liquid.
? Realize the applications of Archimedes principle in air.
? Search Internet for applications of atmospheric pressure and Archimedes applications
? Carry out an experiment to verify Archimedes principle and write a report.

–Solve problems related to Archimedes principle.
done
From 04/06 To 08/06

MID TERM TEST
11/06 to 15/06 UNIT 8: Work, power and energy
? Equations relating work and power.
? Work: Definition, formula and its SI units. : W= F.d
? Power: Definition, formula and its SI units.
? Energy: Definition, formula and its SI
? Recall the knowledge on energy, work and power.
? Explain the terms work, power and energy.
? Derive the equations relating work and power.
? Analyse relationship between work and power.
? Relate power and energy.
? Discuss in groups and make presentation on the relation between work, power, and energy.
? Solve in groups problems on work, power and energy.
Nelkon & Parker: advanced level Physics
– Halliday&Resnick:
Fundamentals of physics
-New physics S1,2,3
Longman-pearson

done
From 18/06 To 22/06 SUB TOPIC Energy
UNIT 9:conservation of mechanical energy in isolated system Isolated and open systems.
? Kinetic and potential energy of a system.
? Types of potential energy.
? Convert potential energy into kinetic energy
General Objectives:
? Define terms associated with isolated system and open system.
? Describe an isolated and open system.
? State different forms of mechanical energy.
? Differentiate kinetic and potential energy
? State the principle of conservation of energy.
? Discuss in groups energy conservation and make presentations
? Perform experiments on energy conversion (potential energy into kinetic energy and vice versa) and report.
Nelkon & Parker: advanced level Physics
– Halliday&Resnick:
Fundamentals of physics
-New physics S1,2,3
Longman-pearson
–computer simulations done
25/06 to 29/06 Topic II. THERMODYNAMICS
UNIT 10:Gas laws
? Gas laws (pressure, volume and temperature).
? Boyle’s law(Compressibility of gas)
? State and explain the behavior and properties of an ideal gas.
? Perform experiments to verify Boyle’s law
done
From 02/07 to06/07 10.1 Gas laws experiments ? Charles’s law and Pressure law.
? Ideal gas /Perfect gas equation.
? Discuss equation of perfect gas. (Ideal gas ? Perform experiments to verify Charles’s law and Pressure law and report results.
? Perform experiment to verify Dalton’s law of partial pressure and report.
? Solve problems on gas laws
done
From 09/07 To 13/07 TOPIC III. ELECTRICITY
SUBTOPIC: Magnetism
UNIT11:
Magnetization and demagnetization Lesson
? Structure of an atom.
? Magnetic domains.
? Methods of magnetization (stroking, electrical and earth’s magnetic field) and demagnetization (Heating, hammering, AC current).
General Objectives:
? Describe the magnetic properties of iron and steel.
? Describe the methods of magnetizing and demagnetizing of materials
? Discuss in groups magnetization of ferromagnetic materials and report.
? Group discussion and presentations on demagnetization.
-Nelkon & Parker: advanced level Physics
– Halliday&Resnick:
Fundamentals of physics
-New physics S1,2,3
Longman-pearson
Not done
16/07 to 20/07 Revision and minor exams 23/07 to 27/07 Major exams
Appendix5: First Monthly report (From 26/02 to 26/03/2018)5.1. INTRODUCTION
While doing the internship, the intern has to find out in different problems, the one that he can try to solve which is related to the academic life on the field. It is at that concern I dealt with the problem of “IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE OF SENIOR ‘S STUDENTS IN MECHANICS AT Saint Ignatius High School”
5.1. PBOLEM DIAGNOSIS
Since the intern started teaching and testing the learning, process among students of senior two doing Physics, the problems of low performance in mechanics was identified. This required the researcher to find out the causes of such low performance and suggest strategies to be put in place so as enhance students’ performance better than previously in the content.

The evidence noted was that at the beginning students lacked interest in studying, lack of motivation, not doing homework well and even those who tried, the use to copy the answers of the colleagues, what very bad in this case is that more than 20% of the whole students they fail to submit the homework, this also continues to affect them to get low marks in quizzes and in the exam. Homework done in the first week presented an average of success of 40 % only. Such diagnosis caused the researcher to look for strategies to improve performance among senior two students in physic especially in mechanics
5.2. STRATEGIES TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM
After discovering this problem of low performance and its causes, I decided to solve it by using small groups’ discussion.

5.4. SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITIES
Problem and unit Strategies Teaching and learning activities Participants Period
Problem:
Luck of interest and motivation
Unit 3:frictional forces To solve this problem the following strategy is used
Small groups discussions.

Using small groups discussion in each lesson as a strategy in order to make learning more centered and dynamic.

Activities:
-Perform group experiments to illustrates types of friction forces
-Discuss in groups factors affecting is and report to class
-Learners work in pairs to disadvantages and advantages of friction in every day’s life. Learners,
Intern and
teacher 6 weeks
Appendix 6: Second Monthly report (From 16/04- 18/05/2018)6.1. IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIES
For implementing the strategies the following essential aspect was focused in this month to enhance students’ performance better than previously in the different units of mechanics of senior two.
6.2. REACTIONS OF PARTICIPANTS
On the hand of intern and senior two physics teachers, throughout the planned strategies including active participation of the learners , groups works and presentations, laboratory activities we saw that there was an improvement of active learning even related issues such as: contributing in class answering and change bad attitude about the subject of physics.
On the side of students, they developed positive regard to the application of new strategies by adjusting to new strategies to overcome the barriers.

6.3. EFFECTIVENESS OF STRATEGIES
From the implementation of strategies the results show that students increase their participation in the class to the level that students were curious to ask where they do not understand and raise hands on a great number to respond.

6.4. SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITIES
PROBLEM AND UNIT STRATEGIES TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITIES PARTICIPANTS PERIOD
PROBLEMS:
Bad attitude towards physics subjects and not doing homework well.

UNIT4and 5 Density and pressure in solids and fluid To solve the problem by using the following strategies:
Use media in teaching and learning and textbook and news and new discoveries in mechanics Internet research about the application of pressure.

Discus in small groups by using textbook, how pressure is transmitted in fluids and presentation in class
? Devise experiment to illustrate the functioning of hydraulic brakes.
? Discuss in groups the functioning of hydraulic car jack.
-Homework Learners,
Intern and teacher of physics in senior for senior two classes One month
Appendix 7: Third Monthly report (From 21/06- 22/06/2018)
7.1. IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIES
For implementing the strategies the following essential aspect was focused in this month to enhance learners’ active learning.

7.2. REACTIONS OF PARTICIPANTS
On the hand of intern, physics teacher and parents all the way through the above planned strategies we saw that there was an improve in mechanics
On the side of students, they developed positive regard to the application of new strategies by adjusting to new strategies to overcome the barriers.

7.3. EFFECTIVENESS OF PLANNED ACTIONS
From the implementation of strategies the results show that students increase their participation in the lessons and submit homework at time and doing it well.

7.4. SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITIES
PROBLEM AND TOPICS STRATEGIES TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITIES PARTICIPANTS PERIOD
PROBLEMS:
Disruptive behaviors and not doing homework and taking notes.

UNIT:8 Energy and power To evaluate the achievement of the strategy by using the following method: creating
Setting plan for all students.

Small group discussion.

Parents to sign in the homework note books of their child.

-weakly homework Consultation day for both students and parents at school -Discuss in groups and make presentation on the relation between work, power, and energy.
? Solve in groups problems on work, power and energy.
-Home works. Learners,
Intern
Senior two physics’ teachers and parents One month

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