Corporate culture is like a tree which has
diversified his business in different perspectives. In that context to managing
the workplace diversity becomes one of the most important issues to ensuring
the organizational effectiveness. Diversity Management is an important tool for
fostering creativity and innovation through managing diverse workforce.
Managing diversity is simply managing the individual in workplace. Diversity
transforms the homogenous to heterogeneous workforce. In the recent years,
employing heterogeneous workforces is important for competitive organization
but to manage the diversified workforce is major challenge for management. This paper provides an overview of issues and
challenges occur in the managing diversity. It also aims to investigate the
gaps between theories and practices in the organization. This study emphasizes
that it is need to develop a model and framework in the Indian context to
manage the diversity effectively.
Keywords: Corporate, Diversity management,
managing diversity, heterogeneous workforce
being social discipline refers to the branch of knowledge which is focused to
making and studying of principle and practices which mainly deals with
behaviour of people and human nature. In the past year, the increasing numbers
of mergers, acquisition, joint ventures and strategic alliances has bring
together from different culture and backgrounds. Therefore managing diversity
is biggest challenges but at the same time it is biggest opportunity for the
competitive organization in 21st century (A. Shaban, 2016). Workforce diversity is the issue of individual
at organizational level focus on the similarities and differences occur between
people. Now world is becoming global village and organizations are transforming
from homogeneous workforce to heterogeneous workforce due to demographic
is one of the fastest moving and 6th largest economy in the world.
The deputy chairman of Cebr (Centre for Economics and Business research) has
said that India will have overtaken the United Kingdom and France bath to
become world’s fifth largest economy in United States Dollar terms (Source: The
Economic times: 26 Dec 2017). In simple
way we can define that organization which would have diverse workforce has a
greater understanding of global marketplace. In the past the equal opportunity
was treated as a legal issue in India and it has protected by legal law in the
government organizations but due to globalization the concept of diversity
emphasizes in the private organization. Generally having diversity in
organization can provide multiple benefits at the workplace. Now time to time
company are diversifying their business in different terms. The study of this
paper seeks to contribute the literature in general context of Diversity
management in India. This study can reveals the opportunity and challenges of
managing diversity in Indian contest.
general the concept of workforce diversity and diversity management has emerged
letter but the affirmative action and equal employment opportunity had been
introduced long back in 1964 when the contemporary president of Unites states
of America John F. Kennedy had implemented the Civil Rights Act, 1964 to reduce
the antidiscrimination and give equal employment opportunity to African
American ethnic minorities. A lot of literature and case studies discuss about
affirmative action, equal employment opportunity, workforce diversity, and
diversity in workplace in American, Canada and Australia perspectives yet India
has to emphasizes more regarding the study about concept of diversity and
managing the diverse workforce. Therefore the review of literature is more
focus to define the related term and summarize to clear the concept.
What is Diversity?
can be defined as acknowledging, understanding, accepting and valuing
differences among people with respect to age, class, race, ethnicity, gender,
disabilities, sexual orientation etc. (Esty, Griffin, and Schorr-Hirsh, 1995).
The incorporation of diversity in the companies can foster creativity and
innovation which can increase the work productivity and improve the
organization effectiveness. Demographic changes like women in the workplace,
affirmative action, equal employment opportunity, recruitment of physical
disable and diverse people having different culture and geographical background
will require companies and practitioner
to review their management practices, policies and develop new ideas and
innovative approach to recruit , train and retain the talent of people in the
diversity is simply that how workforce is diverse because of demographic
changes. Diversity involves recognizing and remarking the values of differences
in people, combating discrimination, and promoting the inclusiveness approach
in the organization. Diversity in the workplace can reduce the lawsuits,
employee turnovers and increase market opportunities, recruitment, creativity
and business scenario (Esty et al. 1995). Workforce diversity is difficult task
to manage because there are many challenges to fostering the inclusive positive
environment in workplace.
workforce diversity refers to the variety of difference between people working
together for same goal and objectives in then organization. It means workforce
consisting of broad mix of employees who belong to different racial, ethnic
background of different ages, gender and of different culture and nationality.
Workforce diversity defines that organizations are having more heterogeneous
mix of people in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation,
nationality, and culture.
Dimensions of Workforce Diversity: Broadly
dimensions of workforce diversity can be categorized in two ways; surface level
diversity and deep level diversity.
level Diversity: It defines the characteristics of individual that can be
easily measure, observable but cannot change is known as surface level
Level Diversity: It defines the characteristics of individual which cannot
easily measurable, observable but can be changed over time through training or
experience is known as deep level diversity.Diversity
management and equal employment opportunities are two different terms. The term
equal employment opportunity is a policy framed by government that requires
employer to do not discriminate against employees and job applicant on the
basis of certain characteristics like gender, age, race, ethnicity, language,
region, religion and disability. It is associated with tolerant towards
differences between individual and providing equal chance in workforce. However
diversity management is bit different and emphasizes on organization initiative
to recruit people from diverse background, and provide training at each
individual, group and organization level, and retaining the talent of pool for
term diversity management refers to efforts by organisation to actively
recruit, retain, and facilitate working relationships among individuals from a
variety of backgrounds (Thomas, 1991).
diversity management requires a multiculturalism which is inclusive of diverse
workforce and a positive work environment that nourish and nurture the decision
making, problem solving, team work without discrimination, participation of
individual in achieving the goal. Diversity management transform the reactive
culture into proactive in the organization which increase the team performance
of employees.DIVERSITY ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN INDIA:
are numerous challenges to managing a diverse workforce. Beginning with
recruitment, planning, training and retaining the talent of pool. Managing
diversity is more than simply accepting and respecting the differences in
people. Negative attitude, behaviours and conflict among employees can be
barriers to organizational diversity because they can hurt working relationship
and reduce morale and work productivity which will affect the organizational
effectiveness and performance (Esty et al. 1995). One research also discussed
that implementing the diversity is good for creativity and innovation but at
the same time it is undesirable from the perspective of job satisfaction or
commitment to stay in the organization (Jackson & Alvarez, 1992).
is one of the emerged, developing and dynamic country which have been
beneficiary of the Localisation Globalisation and Privatisation (LPG) process
in 1991. The evidence is clear in front of us that remarkable rise in India
since the adoption of globalization practices and liberalization in policies at
gross level to improve the gross domestic product of the country. After
globalisation more and more multinational companies have dramatically started
to open the branch and operations in India. Foreign Direct investment, share
trade in world, attraction of foreign tourist and the contribution of service
sector has played a crucial role to contribute in economy of India. Due to
globalisation practices concept of managing diversity has become more important
in India due to migration of foreign investors, employees and employers.
is 7th largest country in term of area and 2nd largest
country in the term of population after China. India as a large diverse country
comprises 29 state and 7 union territories. The people of India are
linguistically speaking, it has variety of languages, dialects and cultures.
Every state has its own unique dialects, culture, languages and traditions,
which is the pride and qualities of the state. ‘The Unity in Diversity’ is the
hallmark of Indian society and culture. Only very few countries in the world
might be as diverse as India by its own origin and birth. According to the 2011 census India’s
population comprises six main religious groups: Hindu (79.8%), Muslim (14.2%),
Christianity (2.3%), Sikhs (1.7%), Jain and Buddhists less than 1%.
are 22 major languages listed in India according to Indian constitution of
India, written in 13 different scripts, with over 720 dialects. Hindi and
English are the two official languages of India at centre level. There is no
national language mentioned in Indian constitution yet Hindi is the most
speaking language in most of the states. English which is also widely spoken
language is the most common medium for communication in the India. In addition,
several states in India have their own official languages like Tamil in
Tamilnadu, Malayalam in Kerala, Marathi in Maharashtra, Telugu in Andhra
Pradesh, Kannada in Karnataka, Odiya in Odisha, and Bengali in West Bengal.
However Hindi is most speaking language yet Hindi speaking states again has
local dialects at different regional level. This is the beauty of India that at
each 100 km distance it has different dialects, culture and tradition though
India is united in diverse culture.
are more challenges in India to manage and control the diverse workforce. The
first and most ever challenge is increasing the awareness about managing
diversity that in reality what is the diversity and how to implement the
diversity in business organization? Managing diversity is more than simply
acknowledging and exploring the possibility of implementing the concept of
diversity. It is the responsibility of top level and Human Resource team to
providing the training at each level in the organizations.