CLIMATE, TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY
As Scotland is touching the Arctic Circle, the gulf of stream it manages the temperature relatively mild all over the day. One of the most important significant influences on the traditional architecture is macro climate of the place where the building is constructed. Scotland has a very changeable climate which varies from minute to minute. For one minute the sun could be splitting the stones, but suddenly there will be a lashing rain on the next minute. In Scotland there is a varied variation in the climate is found in less distance throughout the day. It is totally different in highlands the weather can change to different extreme very quickly, in Scotland east coast tends to be cool and dry and the temperature rarely drops below the freezing point during winter period, in summer the temperature is around 19degree Celsius (66 degree Fahrenheit), it is lot milder and wetter on the west coast with the average of highest. In Scotland May and June considered as driest months, July and august considered as warmest months. In northern Scotland the sun barely sets and in winter months it hardly rises at all. There is a very close relationship between the traditional architecture style and building materials and local geology. The geology of southern Scotland region is dominated by a huge area of lower Palaeozoic Greywacke sandstones and siltstone. The study of geological map of region shows that there are many other interesting and alternative rock types, albeit of more restricted occurrence, many of them have been utilised in the built environment among the more it’s clear that the red sandstones of the Permian – Triassic basins at Dumfries, Lochmaben and Annan, the Devonian granites of Galloway and the red to buff Devonian and carboniferous sandstones and minor igneous rocks (both lavas and intrusions) of the border of the countries. This commonly results in the local geology being so deeply reflected in the vernacular architecture that as a geologist, one can almost easily locate oneself within that region by simply studying about the building stones which have been used in the farms, villages and towns of the surrounded area particularly in older structures. The varied topography and consequent science attraction is too well to require much comment. The rivers fed by melting snow of ice Ages and still it is sustained by locally high rainfall that have deposited silt to make delta as within the valleys. Man’s effort on the scenery has been mixed .Geology and topography stay close together. They consists of old hard slate granites. These are surrounded by a belt of carboniferous limestone reaching the sea of south. The eden valley consists of sandstone partly hard and pink but mainly soft brown Permian and triossic of Penrith and St.Bees. When the man made elements interact with the macro climate it determine the factors that affecting comfort in the built environment: Light, heat wind and humidity.
THE PROPERTIES OF EARTH AS A BUILDING MATERIAL
“Soil “can be formed in an infinite variety of composition and possess an endless variety of properties such as adhesion, cohesion, compatibility, bulk density, porosity, plasticity, capillarity, and liner and volumetric shrinkage, among others. Earth has been used as a construction material since ever because it is a low cost material Earth, it is available everywhere , recyclable, incombustible and within the construction it can be used in a wide variety of ways to build walls as load bearing and non –load bearing and other elements also like floor, roof, etc.. The material react to the environment and atmosphere surrounded it creates a proper thermal insulation with good ability to regulate the quality and the internal air humidity, this material naturally provides good acoustics as well. If properly used it is most durable and beautiful material. Among earth building techniques rammed earth is one of the important technique in traditional construction and modern earth architecture. According to Hammond (Hammond, 1973) ,explanation the deterioration of earth buildings are mainly due to Shrinkage, cracking, erosion, underscoring and mechanical damage, the fact is it is due to directly or indirectly of water. The earth buildings successfully last for decades in almost all types of region and climates and also with proper care and maintenance when it’s done with suitable architectural design, structural techniques and proper stabilization measures and a care in sitting. For all types of earth construction, the important properties are the compressive strength, water absorption and weather resistance. In Scotland stone is generally used to be the principle material for the buildings, but earth construction was predominant during the greater part of Scottish history. The use of earth as a building material, needs force to move heavy weights, it has a waterproofing agent in it , also used for decorative finish and even colouring agent, from the earliest settlement to the present day. The construction of major masonry structure like large chambered tomb at maes howe, orkeny is the result of using fine clay as a lubricant mortar to position the stones, Puddled clay is used as waterproofing agent round the stone structure. Mounded Earth to form an earth shelter and turf is used to enclosing bund. (Bruce Walker, 1996). The requirements of earth as a construction material are supposed to be compared with established standards that helps to determine their suitability for construction, few countries have formulated standards for the earth construction. The four main traditional Earth techniques widely used around the world for building with the earth are pise or rammed earth, daub, adobe and cob. Adobe, rammed earth and compressed Earth blocks are most wide spread earth construction techniques used today. The value changes significantly at the period of agricultural improvement and in industrialisation sector at the time of eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Each and every earth building techniques depend on the biding agent. Each and every earth building technology depend on a binding agent, so that helps to hold the soil particles together and prevent slump to the soils natural angle of repose. Binding agent can occur naturally and combines with immense pressure can produce sandstone, shale and slate. The selection of materials is the most important, choosing the correct blend of binding agent and soil particles the earth builder can produce a building product does not require immense pressure to initiate binding but that has a superior wearing and structural qualities for the many of poorer quality sandstone that found in the central lowlands of Scotland. In Scotland traditionally used binding agent are fibre and clay, some of the materials like oils, lime, bitumen and cement can also be used , but these materials bring their own problem to the structure. The simplest way to use the earth for the building is to cut the material that is naturally reinforced with vegetable fibre. Earth comes from the disintegration of parent rock, this rock disintegrates into mineral particles with varying dimensions ranging from pebbles to clayey dust.
New technologies and materials application such as concrete block work, cavity walling and damp roof course started emerging and spreading around 1900, it was a transitional point in construction field. Even though the materials are spreading brick and stone have continued to play an important role in modern cavity walled buildings. Solid walls are formed with the materials like earth and masonry, structural frame works are created using substantial timbers. Stone, slates or lead sheets are the materials used to cover the roof in early days. Fired clay tiles and other materials like weish slate took off when production and transportation allowed. The traditional building materials have been used across Britain are often known as a regional accent. Stone slate is used as a covering material of the Pennines. The steeply pitched thatched roofs of East Anglia are unique and different from the shallow sloped. The softly moulded earth walls of Devon contrast with the crispy cut sandstone of Edinburgh. The poorest often built their own dwelling using whatever was closest to hand. All the areas like upland or lowland, rural or urban, inland or coastal have tried to use of the materials practically with hand and little waste. The by-products of the harvest are the materials used for thatching, agriculture in rural areas feels field stones were a nuisance. The idea of housing is to provide shelter and protect them from the hostile and variable climate. The book of 1698 from Warwickshire holed, the great of Lord Heaven and earth hath reserved such a power in his hand that he can and doth att his pleasure send a cold winterly season in the midst of the spring. In most parts of Britain the roof is designed as overhanging roof from the walls with the materials like earth and timber, it is a Provision designed for heavy rain and kept off from damp ground. Traditional construction might almost be viewed as a form of natural selection. Each and every countries tried to evolve the techniques from which the building materials can withstand the local environment conditions.
In Scotland and on the areas of west coast of wales, The stones are used to weighted the straw ropes that helps to keep the thatch on its place against heavy flow of wind and to protect the exteriors they frequently used lime or clay rendered. During the construction of house substantial quantity of materials are required for the construction and repair. In the earlier buildings it was uncommon for the timbers and masonry to be recycled. During the period of nineteenth century and twentieth centuries brought major changes to the transportation, allowing building materials to be carried over large distances at relatively small cost. Before when carts and rough tracks were the norm most of the buildings relied on materials obtained from the immediate locality. Mechanism and mass production changed the scenario it has boarded the supply and made the same building materials often at the expensive of local traditions. By late nineteenth century for example Economics of scale including new kiln technology made the builders for mass produced material and it became cheap and more easily available.it made a shift to large scale industrialised production and brought alteration in the pattern of building material use.
Buildings long establishment as a professional occupation is shown in surnames such as carpenter, mason or Par getter. The building professional has always had its less reputable side, but the guild system within medieval towns and long apprentices for many crafts gave building high skill levels and status. Traditional building materials vary greatly across Britain. This variety reveals much about the underlying geology of localities and through the usage of materials in the building and these materials help illustrate the lives and inspirations of people from the past. The traditional building materials can be remarkably durable when it is properly maintained and in contrast with many modern alternatives that tend to weather and patinate beautifully so that their character is enhanced by age.
EARTH MATERIALS AS BUILDING PROCUREMENT
In this 21st century the earth construction projects are limited in the current market and clients with the high environmental awareness. The another potential market is based on appropriate repair and alteration for the surviving earth buildings, For the adoption of earth products it needs promotion and active marketing to spread wide and outside these sectors as well. In current scenario we have very few experts and designers in this field. The design opportunities should facilitate proper accepted standard, technical support and easy information to access. The earth materials are started importing or its produced based on the project need. Earthen architecture has an ability of demonstrating good relationship with the current buildings, this often involves substantial work for the designers and building control officials. Currently there is no proper standards for earth construction within U.K, but there is developing interest among the manufacturers to produce earth products instead of energy intensive products. The lack of documents is a significant measure on the development of earth construction. There are several ways to establish the standards and this should be promoted and create awareness from the established official organisation.