Children face difficulties in acquiring language because of some features that the English language possess which makes it harder for the children to use the language in competence, however, there is some positive sides that facilitate its acquisition. Children learn to speak then to write .Writing and speaking are well connected. There are many perspectives on how to improve child literacy one of them is the social perspective which concentrate on the importance of socialization with the child and his literacy development. In addition to continuing to learn the rules of spelling, students can develop a deep understanding of English by studying the meanings of roots, prefixes, and suffixes; families of related words; the historical development of the English language; and words’ language of origin. In addition to what has been discussed previously, many children who have difficulty reading have short sightedness, or problems in distinguishing colors, such as white on the green or black board is not clear, and the latter type is the level of examination Consideration of the child is sound, leading to parents not paying attention to the problem. There are problems in the hearing process of the child, and thus becomes unable to hear his voice during reading and thus fall into the problem of non-discrimination. The weakness of the child in the process of spelling characters, which is the first step in trying to bind the characters, making reading difficult. The process of learning how to read, regardless of which language is a step in itself.
Orthography is the study spelling and how to combine letters to represent sounds and form words. Hanley (2010) pretensions that an amount of studies have shown that term estimate dexterity in children learning to read English incubate more tardily than in other countries utilizing alphabetical regulations. He contrasted the word recognition skills of resemble groups of children learning to read in Welsh (with a transparent orthography) and children learning to read in English (with an opaque orthography). He found a “tail’ of poor English readers, but no such tail of those learning to read in Welsh. He argues that English is a difficult writing system for children to learn.
Dombey (2006) has also written about the challenges that English orthography presents to learner readers. She argues that “it is never going to be enough to teach children the phoneme-grapheme correspondences of words such as “dog” and “cat” We need to help them become aware of other patterns. Rhyme is particularly useful here the rime is a stable spelling that represents a stable pronunciation, and so provides a better clue to word identification than does a grapheme-by-grapheme analysis.
(Wood.C, Connelly.V, p.221)
Another strongly held view is that it is beneficial for children to be trained in phonological awareness skills prior to learning to read (Maclean et al., 1987; Fraser 1997; Goswami, 1999). Although there is a well-established association between preschool phonological awareness skill and later reading, there are only a few studies showing that training this skill without print exposure is beneficial for reading and spelling (Cunningham, i Lie, Lundberg et al., 1988). Indeed, other studies find that children only benefit from phonological awareness training if they are shown how the sounds in words are presented letters of the alphabet.
(Wood.C, Connelly.V, p.222)
Wimer and Goswami (1994) used a similar technique to investigate the effect of schematic consistency on reading development in English-speaking and German-speaking children. In this study, children were asked to read numbers (1, 3, 5), word count (ten, seven) Derived from the number of words by changing the beginning of the section (for example, Sein, Vevin). There were no differences in the group in the speed or accuracy with which the numbers and the number of words could be read, but there was a linguistic difference in non-linguistic reading: German children, who learned transparent language, made fewer mistakes and read the Nunords faster.
It predicts that reading in a shallow orthography utilizes phonological coding more than reading in a deep orthography because of its consistency between phonology and orthography. In contrast, reading in a deep orthography is assumed to utilize more visual and morphological elements. However, the ODH does not imply exclusive phonological coding in reading a shallow orthography; rather both phonological coding and visual orthographic coding are assumed in any writing system. Therefore, orthographic depth is one of the factors that indicates a preference for the use of phonological coding.
Connecting written and spoken language in language teaching the relationship of the written and spoken versions of a language is exploited in many and varied ways in language teaching. In the area of vocabulary, new words are commonly introduced by pronouncing writ ten words aloud. When new vocabulary items are encountered in a con- vernation class, the teacher will often write these on the board so that students can make cognitive connections between the spoken and writ- ten versions of lexical items. In the teaching of grammar, sentence pat- terms are generally introduced first in the written form and then practiced in the spoken form. In reading classes, students might be encouraged to read what is written aloud. While in pronunciation classes, students might be expected to repeat words and sentences writ- ten in their books or on the board.
The interconnections between speaking and writing provide a rich source of information about a language. Literate speakers of a language are accustomed to making these connections and to learning the spoken form of a new language, at least in part, in relation to its written form. For non-literate or semi-literate adult language learners, proficiency in speaking and writing are often equally important goals, so that for this population, too, the connections between speaking and writing are a common focus of instruction. In many typical language learning con- texts, then, it is probably unrealistic to expect adult language learners not to make connections between the spoken and written forms of the language, and not to use information gleaned from written forms as a source of information about spoken forms.
(Martha C. Pennington.M.C, (2014).)
Now, when we talk about the disadvantages and virtues of the science of dictation, we must ask, what is the correct spelling of a word? What is correct pronunciation? What does the word mean? What kind of writing system should someone use to write a particular language? For speakers of a language such as English, which have been standardized for a relatively long period of time, these questions may seem relatively straightforward. With only rare exceptions, there are clear answers to questions of this kind. For correct spelling, pronunciation and meaning of the word, we rely on the dictionary, which tells us socially acceptable criteria. As for the writing system to be used, we are once again relying on a socially agreed system. Thus, English is written in the Latin alphabet instead of the Cyrillic alphabet, which is used, for example, for the Russian language. Of course, it can be written in English Cyrillic or Arabic or Hebrew, or even with Chinese characters. Although each writing system has its own advantages and disadvantages, any language, in principle, can be represented in any type of dictation, and has written many languages using different corrections from time to time.
One of the disadvantages of alphabetical systems is that basic literacy skills depend on the ability of children to divide the sound stream into phonemes and matching graphemes to the corresponding phonemes will return to this problem when the oldest theory of grain size is psychological (Ziegler & Goswami, 2005, 2006). Another disadvantage of the alphabetical systems relates to the fact that it is difficult to implement a complete alphabetical system in which there is one constant correspondence between sounds and written symbols. Along this line are different languages that use the alphabet. Contradictions in spelling systems can be the result of the fact that languages differ in the extent to which their spelling system is transparent.
One of the main reasons that English seems so irregular is that we have lots of different spellings for the same sound. For example, the /k/ sound can be spelled with several different letters and letter combinations, such as k (king), c (cat), ck (back), qu (queen), and ch (chorus). Why is this? Modern English has been influenced by several core languages, primarily Anglo- Saxon, Norman French (a dialect of Old French used in medieval Normandy), Latin, and Greek. Because each of these languages contributed its own conventions for spelling speech sounds, syllables, and meaningful units of speech, the spelling of a word is often related to, and even explained by, its history and language of origin. And For example the sound /2/ can be spelled as o, a, oa, augh, aw Gust to mention a few), and the letter ‘i’ can be pronounced as /I/ or /al/. In addition to being nontransparent, English, similarly to French, is an opaque language because it has silent letters. Spelling is also influenced by morphology as the morphological relationships are signaled in spelling despite differing pronunciation
When talking about socialization and the social perspective of child literacy education language Focus on processes while cognitive perspectives as the rules of procedure to the child’s mind-making language context, with social perspectives focus on the role of language in the social focus on communication function. According as part of the socialization of the child this view, language learning is seen in a society with distinct language practices, and the language itself is considered a resource for its users. As Michael Halliday observed, from an early age a child “uses his voice to order people to, get her to do things to him, use him to claim certain things or services, also, Therefore, social perspectives emphasize the practical use of language, focusing on how children learn to participate in conversations with others, how to use the language to perform certain acts of speech and expression of social identity.
In conclusion Lyons said: “the spoken language is primary and writing is essentially a means of representing speech in another medium” (Lyons 1968 38), The dissemination of English cross the border of English speaking countries and reach all over the world, many disciplines are taught in English and children in?school s learn it as second or foreign ,so many of the positives and negatives of the language are faced by both native and non-native speakers .the new methods of teaching that are based on scientific research helped many people to understand the language in a more efficient way.