Chemiluminescence life can only tranlate this kind of colour.

Chemiluminescence is the term that had been used to define the light production due to chemical reaction. It has many subdivisions. One of them is bioluminescence, the phenomena that take place when light is radiated by the living organisms caused by chemical reaction. Bioluminescence also called as a “cold light” as the light only generates less than 20% of heat. The utmost of bioluminescent organisms was encountered by the marine life. For example, fishes, jellies, bacteria and etc. But,that does not mean there is no land life that produce bioluminescence. Fireflies and fungi, for instance, are the land life that produce bioluminescence. Chemical reaction in bioluminescence occur when there are the existence of luciferin and either one of luciferase or photoprotein. The compound that actually supply the light production is the luciferin. The arrangement of luciferin molecules form variety of bioluminescent colour. The substance (enzyme) that react with luciferin is called as luciferase. The reaction between them (luciferin and luciferase) effect the rate of reaction. The presence of oxygen in this reaction produce oxyluciferin (byproduct) and light. Other than the luciferin-luciferase reaction, bioluminescence can also occur by the interaction of photoprotein with oxidized luciferins. However, this interaction did not complete without calcium ions.   There are 2 types of bioluminescent organisms, organism that synthesize luciferin independently (dinoflagellates) and the otherwise (midshipman fish and squid). Dinoflagellates are the marine miniature organisms that can produced bluish-green colour (bioluminescent colour). In dinoflagellates, the enzyme found is related to the chlorophyll (green chemical) found in plants. This plankton can make the ocean’s surface to spark at the night. It is not something that impossible as by the logic, they exist in a large group. “Alone we can do so little, together we can do so much”, Helen Keller. Besides, the organisms that could not produce luciferin by themselves can either undergo symbiotic relationship or ingest it through others. For example, midshipman fish consume the “seed shrimp” to obtain luciferin through it. Other example is the squid which go through symbiosis with bacteria. In this case, the squid occupied the bacteria in their light organ.Bioluminescent light can appear in various colours depends on the habitat and the organisms. Majority of the marine life produced blue-green colour. The reason is blue-green colour are more noticeable in the deep ocean. Furthermore, most marine life can only tranlate this kind of colour. Similarly, a bulk of land life also exhibit this colour (blue-green colour). In addition, a large-scale of them can shine in yellow spectrum. For instance, fireflies and quantula striata (land snail). Some of the bioluminescent orgenisms are able to display more than one colour. Railroad worm is one of this extraordinary organism, where its head glows in red and its body glows in green. Not only limited to there, a part of the organisms capable to emit the light either constantly or as a flash. One example is foxfire, the consistent ray produced by the fungi that take part in wood decay. Meanwhile, the flash bioluminescence can be spotted via the dots on a squid.    Finally, we want to go through the bioluminescence adaptation. Bioluminescence is very rich in usages. First and foremost, it is used by the prey to protect themselves from the predator. Brittle star separates its arm to puzzle the predator as they (predator) will chase after the glowing arm, without knowing that the brittle star is already escape in the dark. For your information, brittle star can re-grow its arms same as the sea star. On the contrary, the predator will make use of the bioluminescence to hunt the prey. The anglerfish, a fish with a lighted up ball above its head, fascinate the smaller fish. The smaller fish approach the anglerfish to get rid of its curiousity about that ball. Unfortunately, it ends its life toward the anglerfish. The uses of bioluminescence did not only profit the prey-predator relation. Adult fireflies attract their mates using the pattern of their flashes. The pattern tells the female fireflies about the males’ identities and their interest to mate. We as people also apply the bioluminescence. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) take a role as gene reporter. The activity of studied gene by the biologists is observed using GFP. This is because the GFP is easy to diognise and measure. Other use is to make the street city and highways brighter. Thus, we can decrease the electricity demands. Lastly, the farmers’ and agribusiness’ costs might also be reduced as bioluminescent crops and plants will glow themselves when they are lack of water or nutrients and ready to harvested.


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