Chapter # 03 Methodology 3.0. Data and Methodology 3.1.Introduction

# 03 Methodology

Data and Methodology

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This chapter would highlight the fact that procedures for
collecting the data and the methods that are existing and the methods that
would be followed in the existing study and the various tests that would be
applied. The essential contents of this chapter would be explaining the
paradigms, data collection methods, the research approach, sampling size, the
procedure for developing questions related to the topic, whereas, next topic
would discuss the tests that would be applied for the analysis and deriving
results out of that.


to Taylor, Kermode and Roberts (2007), research paradigm remains “a
comprehensive understanding or standpoint of approximately the theory to examine,
discover or using the both approaches”. Furthermore, Weaver and Olson (2006),
states paradigm as the procedure that in what way the study could be overstated
and focused by a persuaded hypothesis by declaring, “hypotheses or paradigms
are arrangements of principles and follows that standardize examination inside
a self-control provided that settings and procedures over and done with which
exploration is proficient”. Subsequently, to clarify the investigator’s
procedure of examination and procedural selections, an inspection of the model
supposed for the reading will be considered preceding to any disagreement
around the precise practices exploited and applied in the studies. There are
various types of study paradigm; Positivism, Interpretivism
and Pragmatism.


Interpretivism, as the term
suggests, includes investigators to understand fundamentals of the reading,
therefore interpretivism mixes social attention obsessed by a study. Therefore,
“explanatory scholars undertake that admittance to authenticity (specified or
informally raised) is solitary concluded through community structures such as
linguistics, awareness, common denotations and tools” (Myers, 2008).
Interpretivism is connected through the metaphysical situation of optimism and
is recycled to cluster organized various tactics, phenomenology and
hermeneutics; methods that throwaway the opinion that significance exists in
inside the biosphere self-sufficiently of awareness and realization (Collins,
2010). Furthermore, interpretivism revisions typically emphasis on significance
and might engage numerous approaches in demand to replicate dissimilar features
of the matter.

Positivism Paradigm

    Positivism states
that the aspect of science that states or says that substantial findings resultant from balanced
and logical activities and intelligences of sensory information is the partial foundation
of all imposing facts that there is legal acquaintance only in
this consequent information. Long-established data
recognized from the intelligences are recognized as experiential indication.
Positivism grips that advancement like the bodily domain, functions
representation to universal laws. Even though, the positivist method has stayed
a steady subject in the times gone by of western supposed, the contemporary
intelligence of the method was recognized by the theorist and establishing
sociologist Auguste Comte in the initial 19th century. Comte claimed
that, abundant as the corporal biosphere functions rendering to significance
and additional out-and-out rules, so organizes civilization. Positivism is a
logical scheme that grips that every single reasonably admissible declaration
can be substantiated over discipline, judgment or arithmetic. Positivism
throw-outs metaphysics and belief.



3.2.3.      Pragmatism

third enquiry paradigm is Pragmatism. Pragmatism in its modest intelligence is
an applied method to a problematic and has durable suggestions with diverse
approaches of investigation. Pragmatism is able to be measured a bond among
paradigm and procedure or whatever Greene and Caracelli (2003) mention to as a
precise posture at the border among viewpoint and method.

Philosophical Approach Taken

In this study, researcher has used positivism paradigm because it
includes the experimental and descriptive study.  According to the body positivism has a
single, external and objective of the research question. Therefore, empirical
studies is selected to take control and structural methods to identify a
research project from an initial build up to an appropriate research question
and hypothesis and using appropriate research methods. The existing study
exists on the positivism paradigm as research philosophy. The approach would be
deductive. The study and the researcher is verifying and examining a theory
which has already been formulated so in the proposed study, research problem
that is already existing is going to be verified and tested so the approach
would be deductive here and research paradigm would be positivism. 


Originally, it is essential for an investigator to adopt
whatever kind of study is to be accompanied: affirmative or investigative
study. Hair et al. (1995), suggests that
favorable studies are individuals looking for to examine a pre-specified
correlation, whereas investigative studies are individuals which state
potential associations in solitary the greatest over-all procedure and then
permit multiple procedures to appraise an association. In the final
circumstance, the scholar is not observing to “authorize” any
relations stated preceding to the study but in its place permits the technique
and the statistics to describe the landscape of the relations. Present are three sorts of investigation
methods; Quantitative Research, Qualitative Research and Mix Method Research.

Quantitative Research Approach

   Quantitative research is
mostly connected through the positivism paradigm. It typically encompasses
gathering and changing statistics into arithmetical arrangement so that
arithmetical controls can be completed and assumptions can be taken out.
Information is placid by numerous incomes subsequent a severe process and ready
for arithmetical examination.
The foremost stress of quantitative research is on logical rational which
inclines to transfer from the overall to the detailed. This is occasionally
denoted to as an uppermost to downcast methodology. The rationality of
assumptions is publicized to be reliant on single or supplementary grounds
(preceding announcements, conclusions or circumstances) actuality lawful.

3.3.2.      Qualitative
Research Approach

   Qualitative research is the methodology
regularly allied with the communal constructivist paradigm which highlights the
informally constructed countryside of authenticity. It is around recording,
examining and endeavoring to discover the profounder denotation and implication
of social performance and knowledge, comprising opposing views, activities and
sentiments. Scholars are concerned in acquisition of an amusing and
multifaceted sympathetic of people’s involvement and not in gaining material
that could be widespread to extra superior clusters. The method implemented by
qualitative researchers rises to be inductive and that means that they mature a
philosophy or aspect for a shape of significance on the foundation of the
statistics that they have previously consumed together. This includes a change
after the precise to the universal and is occasionally named a bottom-up
tactic. Qualitative research repeatedly contains a slighter amount of members.
This might be for the reason that the approaches recycled such as detailed
meetings are period and work demanding nonetheless likewise for the reason that
a great amount of individuals are not wanted used for the determinations of
arithmetical breakdown or to sort oversimplifications commencing the

Mixed Research Approach

   The mixed method is
another technique that could be either said as mixture of the above mentioned
techniques. The selection of this technique depends on the nature of the
problem as if there is a need for accomplishing of the facts and figures and at
the same time with the logical reasoning as well. This method relates to the
pragmatic paradigm as the researchers of that paradigm as the liberty to use
multiple sources available to them and various techniques could be applied as
it turn out to be mixing of the available tools and techniques.

Philosophical Approach Taken

   The research approach in
the recommended reading would stand as quantitative investigation method for
the reason that it includes amassing and adapting facts keen on arithmetical
method so that arithmetical controls can be completed and assumptions would be exhausted.
In sociology, measureable study is also known as quantitative
research and it mentions to the methodical experimental examination of shared incidences
via arithmetical, accurate or geometric data or computational methods. The
independent aim of this sort of research is to progress and
engage calculated
representations, concepts or theories concerning to individualities.
The development of quantity is dominant to quantitative study for the
reason that it makes available the important joining
among experimental statement and scientific appearance of
quantitative dealings. Quantitative statistics is some facts that is in
arithmetical system such as figures, proportions, etc. In common individual’s
languages, this states that the quantitative scholar asks a precise,
constricted enquiry and gathers a model of mathematical statistics from
observers to response the enquiry. The investigator would examine the
statistics in the planned study with the assistance of numbers.


Research Instrument is one of the most important part of the study
as it is essential to collect the data, which can provide useful insight into
the research topic and then further helps in analyzing the data for making out
conclusions out of that. The research instrument that is being used is adapted
from various studies. The questionnaire has been made by taking out related
questions from various studies that were conducted globally and locally on
related topic. The studies and the work
of other scholars have been used to take out the questions that would be used
in the existing study and useful conclusions would be drawn out after taking
out their close ended answers through the filling of questionnaires by
conducting surveys.

collection methods

Data collection is the procedure of meeting and gauging
material on variables of attention, in a recognized methodical manner that
permits one to reply quantified research enquiries, test theory and appraise results. The
data collection constituent of investigation is mutual to all grounds of study
counting corporal and communal
sciences humankinds, commerce, etc. Although approaches diverge by discipline,
the stress is on guaranteeing detailed and authentic gathering fragments into the
similar boxes. The objective for all statistics gathering is to capture value
indication that formerly interprets to ironic statistics breakdown and lets the
structure of an undoubted and trustworthy response to enquiries. Unrelatedly of
the ground of reading or partiality for crucial statistics (quantitative and
qualitative), correct facts gathering is important to preserving the
truthfulness of study. Equally the choice of suitable data collection tools
current, altered or recently established) and undoubtedly outlined directions
for their precise usage decrease the possibility
of faults happening.

A questionnaire or a survey is a means of collecting facts and
figures and a slope of transcribed
enquiries of getting together evidence almost related to a specific
inhabitants by testing a group and certain of its associates, typically done
over a structure of homogenous enquiries. They can be managed one or the other two
entities or clusters. It is a conversation
in which one person elicits information from a new individual. A transcription
or explanation of such a discussion is too named a discussion. The discussion is equally a study process and a prevalent system of non-fiction.

The quantitative data will be collected using questionnaires. For
the proposed study, researcher would use questionnaires and the motive is
that questionnaires are an investigation tool containing of a
sequence of enquiries and additional stimulates for the persistence of
collecting evidence from respondents. Even though they are repeatedly planned
for numerical breakdown of the reactions.

& Population

investigation from people is normally a great gathering of persons or
substances that is the foremost attention of a methodical question. It is for
the profit of the inhabitants that studies are finished. Nevertheless, payable
to the fat magnitudes of people, scholars frequently cannot check every single
singular in the people for the reason that it is excessively costly and timewasting.
This is the motive why scholars bank on sampling methods. A study population is
also recognized as a distinct assortment of personalities or substances
acknowledged to have parallel appearances. All persons or substances inside a
firm populace typically consume a shared, tie specific or mannerism.

Sampling is the method of picking a cluster of
matters for an education in such an approach that the personalities denote the
greater cluster commencing which they remained nominated. This illustrative
share of a people is named as sample. In this procedure, every single affiliate of the people has
an equivalent coincidental chance of being selected. The whole procedure of
sampling is completed in a solitary phase with every topic nominated
self-reliantly of the extra associates of the population / populace. There are numerous behaviors of sampling. We
will aspect at probability sampling and non-probability sampling. Sampling 

It is
a model in which every single element in the population has a coincidental of
actuality nominated in the sample and this likelihood can be precisely steadfast.
The mixture of these characters creates it likely to harvest dispassionate
estimations of populace wholes by allowance tested elements conferring to their
likelihood of selection. – Probability Sampling 

It is a technique where certain origins of the population have no coincidental of choice or anywhere the
likelihood of assortment can’t be precisely unwavering. It includes the
assortment of essentials founded on expectations concerning the populace of
attention, which customs the standards for assortment. Henceforth, because the
assortment of origins is non-random, therefore, this sampling does not permit
the approximation of selection mistakes. These circumstances stretch growth to
prohibiting prejudice, employing restrictions in what method abundant evidence
a model can deliver nearly the people. Evidence approximately regarding the
association among sample and population is imperfect, building it problematic
to generalize commencing the sample to the population.

Sample Size

    The sample size and
sampling for the proposed study would be 200 sample size and probability
sampling would be followed. The existing study collects the data from the
respondents in form of questionnaire and therefore, there is a need to select a
particular sampling technique. The sampling technique that is being used here
is stratified sampling. The sampling techniques that have been used is stratified
sampling because various organizations of the retail industry are being
surveyed so they have been already divided in strata on the basis of their geographical
locations and then the people involved with the high performance practices would
only be surveyed as the second part of the strata. As stratified sampling deals
with the division of various strata and first strata is on gepgraphics,
whereas, the second deals with the relativeness of the research problem of the
study. The questionnaires will be filled from the people involved in policy
making such as, employees of the Human Resource Department and the ones who are
involved with important decisions regarding the constructs of the study. The
respondents would fill in the questionnaires and after that the data would be
analyzed using the SPSS Software. Hence, the sampling technique in the study
would be cluster sampling and the sample size would be 200 respondents for the
existing thesis.

and Reliability of the Data

Validity denotes to the concerns of whether or not a gauge actually
processes the concept that it is established to degree or not. In the existing
study, the validity used would be face validity. Face validity, is where
instrument seemingly reveals the content of the theory in question(s).
Afterwards developing the questionnaire, investigator would then check or
confirm the instrument from any of the professionals of that field. The
professional would be perhaps connected with the relevant profession or an
expert alike supervisor for conducting thesis. As supervisors are knowledgeable
and have more understanding as associated to apprentice researchers so they
would help out in shaping out the validity of the research instrument. The
reliability is another significant side. The reliability will benefit to
recognize the constancy and the stability of measurement with the use of
research instrument. The reliability sort used in the study would be with use
of SPSS software and putting on reliability test of Cronbach Alpha. In this
arrangement of reliability if the facts obtained provides the value of 0.70 or
more by applying the test at that time the data would be reliable and more events
in the research would be through as that would mean that figures are reliable
and measurement through the research instrument would be constant and the
stable for the proposed study.


Certain ethical considerations in this study
are likewise remained and reserved in attention. Leading of entirely,
researcher has continued to be truthful and composed the statistics with
morality and consequently enquiry has existed completed on the statistics. Then
and there impartiality is likewise set aside in concentration. Researcher has
strained his neck and neck greatest to improve solitary applicable and
unprejudiced facts and figures so that the neutral of this examination can be
succeeded. Additionally, honesty is also preserved throughout study and all the
substantial is composed for this study after verification of the reading and
with earnestness. Scholar has remained ethical in carrying out the reserach
even though assembling records, depicting consequences and understanding those
consequences. Researcher is endured to be exposed in the direction of the
education course during the course of the study and appropriate mention and End
list referencing exists that makes and maintains the readers trust for the
placid evidence and literature to recognize the studies and other scholars gone
through for the purpose of this study. Additionally, the component of privacy
is also reserved in notice and completely the facts have held in reserve and private
almost regarding every single respondents. 


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