Bismarck there was one more failed attempt to unify

Bismarck had been
considered the ‘mastermind’ behind German unification in 1871. Through a series
of calculated wars, which expressed his ‘realpolitik’, Bismarck managed to
unify the various German states under the Prussian king who now became Kaiser
of Germany. Recently however a debate has been going on whether Bismarck
intendent to unify Germany through his policies. Indeed, while he had an
important role, it is arguable that the unification was also the result of
broaden historical forces.

Germany as a
political unit didn’t exist before some important events happened. The
dissolution of the Holy empire in 1806 and the defeat of Napoleon in 1814 were
important factors for the forming of a loose confederation involving of thirty-eight
states. The idea of German
nationalism goes much earlier as there were nationalist representations of
unified Germany however such viewpoints were other limited in their appeal.

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“Having said that Germany did not exist
politically, it is clear that a cultural idea of Germany did exist”1 .Also,
even though there was the idea of cultural identity because of the common
language and the education system there was no evidence for political identity.
Nothing was a foreseeable sign about the unification of Germany to a nation
state.

Nevertheless,
before the actual unification of Germany there was one more failed attempt to
unify Germany. In 1848-49 there was a burst of revolutions all around Europe.
That period many revolutions were happening in several European countries and
the German revolution (or March revolution) was one of them. Numerous
rebellions and protests were happening confirmed the big dissatisfaction of
people because of the political structure of the independent states of the
confederation. However, the two important components of the revolution, working
and middle class that they belonged to liberals, were divided after a while and
that had as a consequence aristocracy to defeat them. The revolution had failed
and many liberals to escape the exile emigrated to other countries. Hence Bismarck
himself through one of his most important speeches “Blood and iron” judged the
liberals and their failed attempt to unify Germany “Germany is
not looking to Prussia’s liberalism, but to its power; Bavaria, Württemberg,
Baden may indulge liberalism,
and for that reason no one will assign them Prussia’s role …that was the big
mistake of 1848 and 1849′

Bismarck surely played an important role towards unification however
Prussia’s actions played a large role too. His military reform and his powerful
attitude were the core for the successful Prussian wars that had as a result
the unification of Germany.

The first of the three wars were the Schleswig war. The Austrian and
Prussian armies, united, defeated the Danish troops in a few months. On 18
April of 1864 the battle of Dybbol happened that was decisive for the Prussian
army. Because of the London protocol Bismarck was afraid for political or
military intervention from France or Russia. The consequences of this war were that
the northern borderline of the German empire was established. This war flare
up some conflicts between Prussia and Austria which led to the Austro-Prussian
war.

In the Austro-Prussian war, Prussia was superior to
the Austrian and its allied forces. This happened because of the technical advantage
that Prussia had. Prussian army had access to breech-loading weapons, developed
infrastructure which helped to faster transportation. The results of this war were
that Prussia annexed the Electorate of Hesse, the Duchies of Holstein and
Nassau, the Free city of Frankfurt am Main and the Kingdom of Hanover. Hence,
Prussia was benefited as it had a connection between Brandenburg core area and
Rhine s which was economically important. Also, Austria was forced
to give up Veneto to Italy.  In addition,
Bismarck, renounced annexations and spared the Austrian empire however the
Prussian King Wilhelm didn’t agree. Also, the North German confederation
founded as the German confederation had dissolved.

Finally, the last of the three wars was the Franco- Prussian war.
Prussia faced problems trying to bring up the North German Confederation
against France. However, some German states had joined into covenants with
France too. Thus, the German troops were superior to the French and this led to
the quick victory of France. Consequently, France had to pay 5 billion gold francs
as a war reparation. The main enemy of German unification had defeated so the German
empire was declared in the hall of mirrors at the palace of Versailles.

 

 

Bismarck had been
considered the ‘mastermind’ behind German unification in 1871. Through a series
of calculated wars, which expressed his ‘realpolitik’, Bismarck managed to
unify the various German states under the Prussian king who now became Kaiser
of Germany. Recently however a debate has been going on whether Bismarck
intendent to unify Germany through his policies. Indeed, while he had an
important role, it is arguable that the unification was also the result of
broaden historical forces. Germany as a
political unit didn’t exist before some important events happened. The
dissolution of the Holy empire in 1806 and the defeat of Napoleon in 1814 were
important factors for the forming of a loose confederation involving of thirty-eight
states. The idea of German
nationalism goes much earlier as there were nationalist representations of
unified Germany however such viewpoints were other limited in their appeal.”Having said that Germany did not exist
politically, it is clear that a cultural idea of Germany did exist”1 .Also,
even though there was the idea of cultural identity because of the common
language and the education system there was no evidence for political identity.
Nothing was a foreseeable sign about the unification of Germany to a nation
state.Nevertheless,
before the actual unification of Germany there was one more failed attempt to
unify Germany. In 1848-49 there was a burst of revolutions all around Europe.
That period many revolutions were happening in several European countries and
the German revolution (or March revolution) was one of them. Numerous
rebellions and protests were happening confirmed the big dissatisfaction of
people because of the political structure of the independent states of the
confederation. However, the two important components of the revolution, working
and middle class that they belonged to liberals, were divided after a while and
that had as a consequence aristocracy to defeat them. The revolution had failed
and many liberals to escape the exile emigrated to other countries. Hence Bismarck
himself through one of his most important speeches “Blood and iron” judged the
liberals and their failed attempt to unify Germany “Germany is
not looking to Prussia’s liberalism, but to its power; Bavaria, Württemberg,
Baden may indulge liberalism,
and for that reason no one will assign them Prussia’s role …that was the big
mistake of 1848 and 1849′ Bismarck surely played an important role towards unification however
Prussia’s actions played a large role too. His military reform and his powerful
attitude were the core for the successful Prussian wars that had as a result
the unification of Germany. The first of the three wars were the Schleswig war. The Austrian and
Prussian armies, united, defeated the Danish troops in a few months. On 18
April of 1864 the battle of Dybbol happened that was decisive for the Prussian
army. Because of the London protocol Bismarck was afraid for political or
military intervention from France or Russia. The consequences of this war were that
the northern borderline of the German empire was established. This war flare
up some conflicts between Prussia and Austria which led to the Austro-Prussian
war.In the Austro-Prussian war, Prussia was superior to
the Austrian and its allied forces. This happened because of the technical advantage
that Prussia had. Prussian army had access to breech-loading weapons, developed
infrastructure which helped to faster transportation. The results of this war were
that Prussia annexed the Electorate of Hesse, the Duchies of Holstein and
Nassau, the Free city of Frankfurt am Main and the Kingdom of Hanover. Hence,
Prussia was benefited as it had a connection between Brandenburg core area and
Rhine s which was economically important. Also, Austria was forced
to give up Veneto to Italy.  In addition,
Bismarck, renounced annexations and spared the Austrian empire however the
Prussian King Wilhelm didn’t agree. Also, the North German confederation
founded as the German confederation had dissolved.Finally, the last of the three wars was the Franco- Prussian war.
Prussia faced problems trying to bring up the North German Confederation
against France. However, some German states had joined into covenants with
France too. Thus, the German troops were superior to the French and this led to
the quick victory of France. Consequently, France had to pay 5 billion gold francs
as a war reparation. The main enemy of German unification had defeated so the German
empire was declared in the hall of mirrors at the palace of Versailles.      

 

 

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