Authentic way in solving the problems of electoral process

Authentic Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) using
Infrared Detection Technique

S.I.Ismail, M.Z.Ismail, M.A.H. M. Amri, N.N.N.Zaki,

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of Electrical Engineering

Teknologi MARA


[email protected]



Abstract— The
voting system is set of rules which define how the desire of people may be
express and how results may be achieved from it. . Illiterate people can also cast their vote
easily. No need to guide the individual. But the problem is the vote paper were
counted manually  which may lead to
miscounted or over counted paper vote. For this purpose, an authentic electronic
voting machine (EVM) is introduced in this paper which replaced conventional
methods of of voters having to physically cast paper
ballots at polling stations nationwide. The paper ballot
system gives a simplest way to cast vote. Therefore this paper explain the
solution to overcome those problem by inventing a machine that make the voting
process much more easier and edible. The system use simple sorting and counting
system that is based on the marks of the voting paper. EVM consists of infrared
sensor as input sensing device and servo motor and 16×2 LCD display which be
controlled by Arduino Uno.

Electronic voting machine, embedded technology, infrared detection, counting




There has been widespread
concern about the trust issues on counting the amount of vote card during on
the election because it is counted manually. Although the discussion of this
problems have taken place in Malaysia, To many Malaysian the deployment can go
a long way in solving the problems of electoral process while others think only
by reducing the level of corruption in the electoral systems can reduce the
rigging and other serious problems.


voting process can be divided into different phases:


1.     Authentication:
In this phase, voter authenticates himself or herself by showing his or her
voting card, this step is public and verified by the presiding officer. At the
end of authentication process, presiding officer give a ballot paper to voter
to cast his or her vote.


2.     Vote:
Voters do their candidate selection in a protected booth by writing it with pen
on the vote paper. Then the vote paper will be folded and inserted into the
voting box. All valid and invalid votes are mixed up in the box.


3.     Vote counting: At the end
of voting time, the presiding officer collect the ballot box containing all
ballot papers and submit it to the counting centre. The voting boxes are opened
and votes are counted and the results are then announced.


There have been
several studies on methods used to improve elections. There are many ways to
track the votes cast by voters. One of it used a set of switches to represent
the candidates. The voters select the candidate by pressing the keypad 3×4 provided
by the election committee 12. Thumb impression for each people has
different pattern. A few researches have been done about the fingerprint
detection in election process. To maximizing the effectiveness and accuracy,
the fingerprint is used for voter’s identification to avoid fake and repeated
voting 3.


This paper
presents the development of electronic voting machine which displays count of
votes using 16×2 LCD display interface. Voters make their votes by putting a
mark on their selected candidate. The IR sensor detects the marks and final
votes count can be seen on the LCD. This EVM also provide a sorting features
between valid and invalid votes



The development of an Authentic
Electronic Voting Machine were consists of two part which was hardware and
software implementation. Figure 1 shows the EVM block diagram for this project.
There are 3 infrared (IR) sensor used in vote card’s detection. An additional
pushbutton is used to send the signal to LCD to display the name of the
candidate who received the most votes at the end of the election process, thus
becoming the winner in the election. Every time the IR is activated, the counter
accumulates value for the respective candidate will be increased. The value
will display using 16×2 LCD display. Servo motor is used in sorting the vote
card into two compartments provided for valid and invalid vote card storage.
All input and output devices controlled by Arduino UNO controller. The 3
IR sensor used represent the three election candidates. Counting the  number of votes for each candidates and  saving the votes paper are the two main scopes
in designing the project algorithm. The invalid votes will be stored in box 1,
while the valid votes will be stored in box 2.            





EVM block diagram.

A.    Process


As shown in
Figures 2 and 3 is a process flow chart for 2 situations that can occur in the
voting process. Condition A is when more than 1 sensor is active at the same
time and Condition B is when only one sensor is active. The sorting process is
depending on the servo motor rotation.

Condition A-Activates more than one IR sensor.




It will rotate 45? clockwise for 
invalid vote storage and 45?
anticlockwise for valid votes storage. 



























Figure 3.              
B-Activates only one IR sensor

B.    IR
detection technique














Figure 4.     
of IR light on: (a) white surface. (b) black surface.

IR Sensors work by using a specific light
sensor to detect a select light wavelength in the Infra-Red (IR) spectrum. By
using an LED which produces light at the same wavelength as what the sensor is
looking for, you can look at the intensity of the received light. When an
object is close to the sensor, the light from the LED will be reflected back
into the light sensor. Since the sensor works by looking for reflected light,
it is possible to have a sensor that can return the value or intensity of the
reflected light. This type of sensor can then be used to measure how
“bright” the object is. As shown in Figure 4, white surface will
reflects more IR light rather than a darker surface. During the election process, all voters will be
provided with a black marker or black sticker to choose their candidates by
marking their candidate on the vote card. For this project, the IR will
activate when it detect the low intensity which coming from a darker surface, and
deactivates at high intensity.


The vote card then will be inserted
in EVM slot card for detection process. Figure 5 shows the vote card is marked
by the voters where candidate A has been selected.












Figure 5.  

and discussion

Input circuit consist of 3 IR sensors. The signal
coming from IR sensor will transfer to the Arduino UNO for execution process.
The IR sensor which in analog signal will then convert to digital signal by
comparator IC LM324 and then connected to the digital pin at Arduino UNO.

A.    Simulation














Figure 6.        
diagram of EVM

Figure 6 shows the sensor activates and
increase counter value by 1 for the first candidate.



Figure 7.  
vote’s detection

IR circuit 1 and 2, as in Figure 7 shows it is
activated at the same time. The output LCD does not display the invalid vote
count, but the servo motor will rotates according to the given instruction.




In this prototype, two boxes were placed to
sort the vote card. Box 1 is for the vote card that has more than one mark (invalid
vote). Box 2 is for vote card that have one mark (valid vote). The result
button and LCD displays will be mounted on side of the prototype.



Figure 8.  












Figure 9.  
pedal  rotation


The IR sensor will be positioned side by side
toward the slot card. Each time a vote card is inserted into the slot card, the
metal pedal will hold the card from falling into the box. IR will detect and
then rotate the servo motor. Then, the card will fall into the storage boxes.




This paper proposes the
development of electronic ballot machine to assist during the election process.
The application of this device is to ensure that the electoral process goes
smoothly in addition to saving voting time and eliminating manpower to count
the number of votes. The project uses a system to detect and count the number
of votes of the electorate. It also can detect and isolate it from the ballot
valid votes. Although EVM security features can be enhanced, the prototype of
the fabricated circuit works well follows the scope of the project as set out
in the beginning. By using this authentic electronic  voting machine,it is not only can save time
and energy,but also make the voting becomes smooth and commercially used in the



Special thanks to Pn. Syila Izawana Ismail for
guiding and supporting throughout the prototype development process.  and UiTM Terengganu branch for providing
laboratory facilities which help in making this project successful. Also thank
to all members of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering who helped indirectly.




Sagarika Meher, “Implementation of Electronic Voting Machine using AT89C51 and
Proteus,” International Journal of Advanced Engineering and Global Technology,
vol-2,Issue-11, November 2014, pp. 101-105, ISSN No:2309-4893.


Soumen Ghosh, “Development of Microcontroller Based Electronic Voting Macine
(EVM),” IOSR Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Vol 9, Issue 2
Ver. VII, March-April 2014, pp. 01-03, e-ISSN: 2778-1676, p-ISSN: 2320-3331.


Agrawal, Pradeep Majhi, Vipin Yadav,”Fingerprint Recognition Based Electronic
Voting Machine,” International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research,
2014, Special Issue,pp. 255-259, ISSN: 2321-0869



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