Ans process through which an individual can influence people

Ans 1:

Leadership is the vision and motivations which drives an organization. This
should not be confused with management. Leadership and management go hand in
hand but they are far apart from each other. It can be defined as a process
through which an individual can influence people to perform assigned tasks
willingly, completely and perfectly to achieve a common goal to provide
heightened level of job-satisfaction and productivity among the workforce. Leadership
is about vision and motivation. It sees a future for the company and keeps his
vision in front of the stakeholders and employees. The vision is always to take
the company to a new heights while providing all the best possible facilities
and perks to the employees. The leader motivates each and every employee of the
company so that they have the same vision and common goal to achieve in the
best possible way giving them a sense of ownership, self-responsibility and a
higher level of satisfaction.

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Significance of
Leadership: Without leadership any business is like a herd without its
shepherd. Effective leadership sets a common goal and motivates its employees
to achieve that common goal. An effective leader also motivates to create new
leaders within the organizations. A leader makes sure that employee needs are
met with the organization’s needs.  A
good leader always gives the leverage to fail as this is the essential part of
the learning and getting success. However, the same mistakes should not be
committed repeatedly. As the good leadership takes the company forward, a bad
or ineffective leadership may hinder the growth of the company and may even
jeopardize the company. The effective leadership contains many different

Leadership Provides Vision:
Leaders present a clear vision of the organizations to the employees and
sets the goal for immediate success as well long-term goals. Leadership works
as a bridge between the organization and the employees and keep on the same
understanding with the vision and mission of the organization.

Provides Guidance:
Leaders provides guidance to employees on how to work effectively and ethically
to achieve the common goal. If needed, they can also show how to perform the
tasks effectively.

Motivates Employees:
Good leaders always motivate the employees to work harder and achieve the
organizational goals by showing commitment and enthusiasm towards the
organizational goals. They always act as a catalyst for their employees to aim
higher and achieve them. They exhibit the same traits which they want from
their employees.

Promote innovations:
The leaders accept the forward-thinking employees and procedures. They want the
employees to be prepared for unthinkable to happen and plan according to that.
Leaders need to trust their employees and it will reflect back on them. When
employees know the trust laid on them by the leadership, they are sure to come
up with alternative, innovative ways to counter a problem. Also, these leaders
hold expertise in the area of innovation. These leaders always set goals higher
than the previous year, so that the task is no more limited to replicate the
previous year performance. Employees are given new challenges to tackle every
year and motivated to achieve the new goal.

Excel at Teamwork: Leaders
excel at teamwork. They have the ability to put down their own self-respect to
a side in the interest of collaboration and value creation as a whole team.
They also respect the value of diversity and inclusion from various field
regardless of their cast, religion, creed, color, ethnicity and language.

Leaders have ability
to take quick decisions: Leaders are good at taking instant decision after
assessing the current situation and also keeping in view the larger goal of the

Leaders help in
management crisis: Leadership acts like a pillar of strength during the
turbulent times. Tough times test the true leaders as their decisions, ability
and quality to keep the employees focused can make or break an organization.

Conclusion: As
already said, an organization without a leader is like an army without its
general, however, this also holds true if the general is not efficient, then
even the biggest army cannot win the wars. Same applies to the leadership as
well. In absence of right leadership, the organization will not have a clear
vision and mission. They won’t have any clear short term and long-term goals.
There would be ambiguity amongst the employees and they won’t be able to focus
either on organization needs or on their own needs. There won’t be any sync
between the top management and employees. As leaders work as an bridge between
the organization and employees, in case the leadership is not right, there
would always be a communication gap and the organizations won’t be able to reach
the greater heights. The employees will have a low morale and they won’t
complete the assigned tasks with enthusiasm. They will lack motivation to do
any new task or provide new ideas and innovations.

Another trait of inefficient leadership is favoritism, where
the incapable and flattery person will be given preference over capable and
deserving candidates and this will ultimately lead to downfall of the
organization. Due to this kind of leadership, productivity will be hampered as
the hard-working employees will not give their best. This reduced productivity
will result in the decrease of the profits and it will hamper the income and
perks of the employees as lower profits will bring pay-cuts and flat

The worst impact of wrong leadership can result in the
closure of the business. Poor leadership results in high turnover of employees
and cost of recruitments and trainings might be lowered. Due to this it may be
hard to meet the business operations. Over-expenditure, mismanagement of funds,
inadequate ratio of borrowings may lead to a point where the business will no
more be a profitable one and may get fail completely.


Ans 2. Introduction:
An organization may be defined as a setup where individuals from different
cultural backgrounds, different education and qualification, different thinking
and varied interests come together to work towards a common vision and mission.
They aspire to achieve a common goal under 
leadership of the organization. This setup is also called the workplace
where day to day activities are done by different people under the same roof.
How these individuals with a common goal and varied individual interest work
determines the success or failure of an organization. Individuals should put
organization’s goal and vision first and work towards to achieve that as an
efficient unit. Once the organization’s goals are achieved, hard working
individuals will also be rewarded and their individual goals will be met. The
flow of power in the organization determines the politics in the organization. Power
can be defined as the ability of an individual or departments to go ahead with
their will in spite of resistance from other people and individuals. Office
politics is mostly used as a tool by individual to gain undue attention and popularity
at workplace without doing the hardwork. They try to malign the image of their
potential colleagues to be in the favorites of the superiors. This kind of
environment at a workplace creates mental pressure and loss or harmony. Due to
this, people are not able to concentrate at their assigned work due to which
productivity gets hampered and ultimately the organization has to pay the
price. Due to this, trust, which is one of the most valuable factor for growth
of any organization, is lost. Politics is an inevitable concept at the
workplace and it cannot be avoided, however, it can be managed so that the
negative impacts on the organization’s goals and growth are minimal.

Factors Contributing to Office Politics: There are several
factors which have been identified to cause the workplace politics and they
have been broadly divided into two parts. Individual and organizational.

Individual Factors:
Followings are the individual factors contributing to office politics:

Need for Power: Every
individual working in an organization desires to be on the higher post and
control others including their juniors, colleagues and even those who are in
higher in hierarchy. To gain this power is needed by the individuals. This
hunger for power leads to politics in the organization where they are more
concerned about getting the maximum power in their hand so that they influence
and control others and their decisions. Higher the person is in the hierarchy,
greater is the need of power. The need for power can be divided into two types:

Personal Power:
Individual/manager who dominate others and demand loyalty for themselves are
generally seeking power only for themselves. They are interested in their will
to be fulfilled without any resistance and they often ignore the organization’s
well being. Example may be Kingfisher Airlines where the power in centralized
only in the hands of Vijay Mallaya.

Institutional Power:
Here managers show a socially acceptable behavior and need for power. They try
to gain power on institutional level so that they create a favorable
environment for political culture for all round development for every
individual. This kind of need of power result in the well-being of the

This concept was introduced by Niccolo Machiavelli who has supported deceit and
opportunism to get and retain the governmental power. Machiavellians are
individuals who can manipulate others using illegal means to fulfill their own
purpose. They are ready to deceive others in order to get their desires to be
completed. They have following characteristics:

These are duplicitous. They have contradictory
view and two ways of thoughts, action or speech.

Machiavellians are cunning in nature. They have
a number of tricks under their sleeve to mould people as per their purpose.

Machiavellians are called narcissistic as well
as they have an excessive and exaggerated feeling of self importance. We
can  also say that they have high

For them everything is fair in a big game and
they do not degrade the use of dirty politics. They also think that the end
justifies the means. They want to retains and wield their power by hook or

They always have hidden identity which they do
not reveal generally. They are also good at manipulation.

Locus of Control: This
is the part of personality psychology. It is defined as the degree where an
individual believe that they have control of the outcomes of event in their
personal as well official life. Internal locus of control is where people base
their success on their own hard work. They understand that whatever is
happening in their life is the outcome of their own actions. Whereas in
External locus of control, people believe that external factors like people,
events, situations or luck are determining events in their life.

Risk Seeking
Tendency: This can be defined as the ability of the individuals to explore
untouched waters. They assess the situation and even if knowing that there are
chances of loss but the rewards are high, they are ready to take the bet.
People can be either Risk avoiders or risk seekers.

Factors: Following are the factors which may prompt politics at the work

Scarcity of
Resources: When there is crunch of the resources, then everybody wants to
have a piece of the pie. This can be thought of as making the maximum profit of
the situation as someone else may grab that.

Competitive Work Environment:
This situation arises when there is a fair number of performers who believe in
hard work and deliver the same in the organization. In that case people, do not
want to take long route, opt for shortcuts and they try to tarnish the image of
their colleagues to go up the ladder. They want to go up the order without
having the required expertise and skills.

Uncertainty at the decision making level also play an
important role in office politics. Favoritism is also a factor as people tend
to push their knowns, relatives and friends in a higher position within the

Importance of
Workplace Politics:  Office politics
is always not a bad thing. As we know, office politics is inevitable it can be
used in Positive way by an able leader. Followings can be the benefits of
office politics:

Distribution of
tasks: A good leader will be aware of individual’s personal goals and
desires and will use them in tune with the organization’s goal. He will
distribute the tasks in such a way that there is healthy competition at work
place which will result in better productivity and in turn better growth for
the organization. This way overall efficiency is increased.

Teaches People to
Self-Monitor: In a better environment to work, people will check themselves
before commenting on others. Instead of indulging in petty office gossips, they
will involve in discussions to come over the conflicts, adopt new tactics and
method to improve the organization, not complaining each and everything.

Better coordination
and networking within the Team: This will make sure that the assigned tasks
are completed without any hustle bustle and in a perfect manner. Greater
networking makes sure that there is better communication between the teams and
no negativity is promoted.

Ans 3 (a). Dissonance or conflict at work is a common
phenomenon. It can be described as the lack of harmony between co-workers.
There may be a number of reasons for disagreement between individuals within a
team or an organizations. These may be on technical grounds, different
expectations, attitudes, opinions and general perceptions of the employees. Communication
also plays an important role in conflicts at work place. Here Sanjay is from
generation X, Gen-X, (Born between 1965-1981) which is considered as the best
generation. In this duration, parents were normally working and kids were left
alone at home to fend for themselves. Therefore they exhibit the traits of independence,
resourcefulness, adaptability towards work, critical thinking and resilient.
They have the ability to get the work done as per their requirements. They are
open to changes in workplace and flexible with new things. They are career
oriented, however, family comes first before the organization and they try to
maintain a work-life balance. They believe in team-work and achieving a goal.
They emphasize on the growth of everyone in the team, organization. Whereas Sam
belongs to Gen Y (Born between 1982-2002). This generation is the most
tech-savvy of the lot and very mush comfortable with the digital technology and
changing trends in almost every field. They have a higher level of
self-importance and self-reliance. They are good at multi-tasking as they are
doing the same since their childhood. They are managing school, sports,
extra-curricular and coaching classes at the sametime. In spite of doing all
these, they are performer in all of these fields. Sanjay and Sam are having
dissonance at the workplace due to their different ways of working and
approach. As Sanjay is concerned about the uplifting of the team, he would need
participation of each and every team member in an assigned task, however, on
the other end Sam would like to do whatever he can do alone, so that he is
recognized for his effort and expertise. Being a Gen-Y, Sam would always want
to look differently at a situation and provide the solution according to that
and this may be unconventional one. Sanjay wants feedback but he does not want
to be supervised by anyone for his work. Whereas Sam is open for feedback and
improve. However, Sam may behave eager and more aggressive towards a goal and
this can also be a reason of dissonance, however, this is only for official
work. At the personal level, Sanjay and Sam share a cordial relation.

Here, it is natural to have dissonance between Sanjay and
Sam as their working style is different. They have a different point of view of
how the things should be done. Sanjay believes in seniority and experience
where as for Sam skill and knowledge matters. For Sanjay, development of whole
team matters, whereas Sam believes in the development of self. Sam is more
energetic where as Sanjay is a bit lazy and cynical as a typical Gen-X. Sam
does not have a problem working under a female-boss, whereas Sanjay has doubt
on the abilities of a female boss and it might hurt his ego as well.

Ans 3 (b): I belong to Generation-Y or the millennial. We
are blessed with the fact that most technological advances happened during our
time and therefore, we have seen the technology being born and then advance
further with all the ups and downs.

Value System of Gen-Y
(Born between 1982-2002): The generation Y is considered as impatient, demanding,
technological whiz kids, however at the same time, we are open minded and
believe in the concept of diversity at the workplace. The cast, creed,
religion, gender, color, nationality, ethnicity and sexual orientation does not
affect us. We are independent and techno-savvy. We believe in flexibility at
workplace. We believe in virtual form of communication, like email, skype,
conference calls,  as well so that
distance is not a barrier. We are creative, smart, productive and result
oriented. We believe in constructive feedback from supervisors and mentors, to
gain professional advancement. We also thrive for new challenges and upgrading
the skills. Advancement is a fodder for us, if we don’t get at the present
company, we will move on as achievement, rewards, promotion and self
development matters for us. At present India has the largest workforce under
the age of 35 and this is approximately 50% of the current workforce. If they
are utilized well, Soon India will be a developed nation. We have the courage
to fail and then try again.

Value System of Gen-X
(Born between 1965-1981): This generation is also called as the Latch-key
kids, as in this duration they were often alone at home once the parents have
left for work. This thing made them independent, do-it-yourself attitude and
get the things done. They are open for changes at the workplace and have a work
to live approach. They emphasize on work-life balance and due to this sometimes
considered slack and lazy. They value constructive feedback, however, they do
not want to be supervised. They like freedom and do not like to be
micro-managed where you need to work for long-hours even if the productivity is
low. Gen-X have experience as well as qualification which comes handy in long
run. As this generation grew during technological advances like computers and
internet, they are tech-savvy as well. This generation is in the prime of their
career. Most of the managers are from this generation.

Baby Boomers (Born
between 1946-1964): These are mainly the people who has either retired or
on the verge of getting retired. They are considered hard to manage, not open
to changes, not willing to learn new-technologies and very cynical and stubborn
in their attitude. They have seen the worst phases of the economy. They have
with-stood the depression and economy downturn. They believe in traditional
ways of working and emphasize on long-hours in the office. They are
career-oriented, hard-working and committed and often termed as workaholics.
They also believe in loyalty and rarely change the company which shows their
dedication and commitment towards the organization. They believe in face to
face communication as compared to current trend of use of electronic mode of
communication like emails.





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