ACHIEVING ARTIFICAL INTELLIGENCE IN EDUCATION
KRITHIKA P AND LEKSHMI PRIYA M S
This paper highlights the significance of Artificial Intelligence(AI) which encourages the students
and the teachers to upgrade their pedagogical experiences to make great strides in the cocooned
arena of education. Artificial Intelligence, currently is elevating tools and instruments used day by
day all over the world dominating from internet search engines to public transports and household
appliances. This Human Machine Interface presents the immediate potential to change the way we
learn, memorize, access and create information. The crucial evolution of non-invasive digital
learning in the modern times are coming up with new possibilities to make steps for replacing the
role of educators with virtual “TEACHERBOTS”. Altogether, the paper focuses the techniques
and challenges to implement the AI paradigm in the upbringing of learning system and to adopt
these approaches for teaching, learning, student support and exploring further directions for
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Human Machine Interface, Teacherbots, Education.
The forthcoming scenario of education is ultimately linked with the developments on modern
technologies of artificial intelligent machines. Implementing the concepts of AI and methods in
the new forms of intelligent e-tutoring software/applications can be developed that permits
computers to act as intelligent mentor. Artificial Intelligence is a platform which incorporate
several academic disciplines and professional specializations on how to make a system which can
act, behave and think exactly or superior than a human being can do. Fundamentally, AI has been
emerged from four subjects, i.e., psychology, philosophy, mathematics and linguistics, and it falls
into the following categories: Think, act humanly and think, act rationally.
In the present day scenario, there has been enormous growth in the area of AI, since it attempts
to scrutinize the universe and shape our humanity in a subtle way. It has been burgeoning for past
one decade and has been influencing our life in ways we are not aware of. For instance, whenever
we search google, some AI is being implemented for best outcomes. Every time we orally
interrogate, speech recognition techniques and natural language processing are used. Nevertheless,
the machine learning is the cornerstone of AI. The decision making enrich in an adaptive way as
the process repeat. Every time, we come across the word artificial intelligence, a huge complicated
thinking machine working in sci-fi environment comes to our mind. This picture often comes due
to the science fiction that we have been viewing or reading since childhood. However, in-depth
analysis suggests that artificial intelligence is an advanced way of algorithm that molds machines
to mimic the human mind under real life situations. Today, there is no industry without the trace
of artificial intelligence.
CONTRIVANCE OF AI ASSISTED LEARNING:
The human behavior is persuaded from education. The environment of education is built by
knowledge, learning capability, teaching skills, experience and evolving teaching methods. The
usage of artificial intelligence in digital learning are making dramatic changes in the manner
pedagogy is conveyed to students with varied abilities and interests. The chances of executing
artificial intelligence in teaching are multifaceted. As quoted by Joel Mokyr, a professor of
economic history at Northwestern University, “I doubt we can ever dispense with human teachers.
But a professor assisted by intelligent machines learning about each student, comparing him with
millions of others and choosing the best approach for his profile, would be even better. Artificial
intelligence does not compete with us, it complements us, makes us better, more intelligent, better
informed. It does not replace individual; it makes them more effective. Considering how much
education needs to evolve, it is better!”.
The customization of technology in the field of education is comparatively slower than other
sector. Despite the fact, currently with the bloom of various Ed-Tech companies, the learning
techniques witness a broad application of newfangled tools to improve the students experience
with AI based Chatbots. Regardless of actions being afoot, the upcoming applications have laid a
great impact in near term.
? Automated Evaluation:
The greatest burden today for the teachers is to evaluate quizzes and assignments, notably in
large quantity classrooms. The dawn of application like MOOCS has already highlighted this
complication as it permits thousands of student register. Moreover, several websites like Socrative
and eClicker, creates multiple-choice questions and are programmed to correct themselves
automatically. In addition to this, most of the learning platforms such as Moodle, Coursera and
Duolingo, Netmaths offer self-corrective questions and tools to generate them. In the approaching
times, these tools will ultimately be able to value short answers and even extends to long essays.
This unburdening means that the educators can spend more time on student development, in class
activities and can interact a lot more with them.
? Chatbots as virtual teachers:
Many universities such as Deakin University in Australia and Georgia Institute of Technology
in USA are experimenting with the improvisation of teacher assistant and campus facilitators by
utilizing IBM’s AI system Watson. Furthermore, in competition with Watson, AI powdered
learning platform like Wipro’s Holmes is giving its tough. The alternative option of human tutor
by a fully AI based system is behind the times. Despite of this, some innovations have been made
on AI based tutoring programs, in the field of basic sciences where such algorithms can teach
fundamentals to the students.
? Anytime, Anywhere, Anyone based learning:
By availing AI system, potentially anyone can learn from anywhere in the world, anytime. This
also allows selection of automated virtual tutors. In forthcoming decades, these AI based programs
will nuture and will provides a much wider range of tutoring services. Nonetheless, this does not
mean the demise of educational institutions, as the teacher will always serve as a guiding force for
the students to develop his/her views and validate the information. Eventually, facilitators will
supplement AI lessons and aid students to face their difficulties and offer interaction and
experience for learners.
With the application of AI in education, the lecturers can be freed from certain routine challenges
and they may focus on getting to know students, creating links with them, accompany the learners
in their path towards a complete human being and guiding them to master the employability skills.
A part of instruction can be assisted by AI, yet valuing, loving, inspiring, educating can never be
replaced by intelligent robot or computers.
INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEM:
The advantage of anywhere, anytime and anyone learning system has created a groundbreaking
impact on the e-learning system. Web-based instructions are used often so that students can login
into online courses via internet. Unlike this, just placing lecture notes on the internet does not
educate them. Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS), a training software is specially designed to
overcome this situation.
The researchers in the field of psychology, artificial intelligence and education mainly make use
of the approach ITS. The objective of ITS is to provide the value of face-to-face encounter. Highly
interactive learning ecosystem which enables the students to practice their skills individually is the
significant feature of ITS. The classic pedagogical techniques such as giving instructions to the
pupils without concerning themselves with a model of the learner’s knowledge are used by the
computer based systems like CBT (Computer based training) and CAL (Computer aided learning).
Yet, these systems cannot assist learners individually. In contrast, an ITS keep an eye on each
learner’s moves within these interactive environments and prosper a model of their skills,
knowledge, and expertise. Depending on the learner model, it can modify didactic strategies, with
respect to both style and content, and contributes appropriate descriptive explanations,
illustrations, hints, demonstrations, and problems to practice for each student. Generally, to
provide these relevant instructions to the learners, an Intelligent Tutoring System consists of three
kinds of knowledge, arranged into four distinct software modules as shown in the figure.
? The Expert Model:
An Expert Model is a computer representation of a declarative knowledge (Domain expert’s
subject matter knowledge) and ability to solve the problems (procedural knowledge). This model
permits the ITS to monitor the pupil’s actions and selections in contrast with an expert in order to
check what he or she does and does not know.
? The Neophyte Model:
The scale of learner’s capability while he/she interacts this training software is called Neophyte
model. The trainee’s knowledge, reasoning skills and perceptual abilities is figured out and
evaluated from his/her performance during the interactive time with the tutoring system. This also
generates proofs and thus utilizes the inference to give a number of pertinent commands to the
? The Instructional Model:
An Instructional Model has the decision making abilities about instructional tactics. This model
relies on the diagnostic processes of the neophyte model for making choices regarding how, what
and when to present information to a student. For example, if a neophyte has been classified as a
beginner in a particular procedure, this instructional model will show some progressive demos of
the protocol before notifying the user to act according to the procedure on his or her own. When a
user is expertized, this model presents more complex circumstances. Additionally, this may also
select simulations, topics and instances that are suitable to the learner’s intelligence level.
? The Interface Model:
A learner can be supported in a task by this interface model which is as predominant as the learning
environment and the communicational medium. Besides, this is the external representation of the
instructional model and expert model. The added advantage of these tutoring systems is that, it can
provide the user a huge collection of application database case studies including individualized
feedback for interpreting each case study. Furthermore, it is a user friendly tutoring system for the
learners, who are interested in practicing and learning at their own pace.
The few samples of intelligent tutoring systems are: KERMIT (Suraweera ; Mitrovic, 2001,
2004), ERM-VLE (Hall ; Gordon, 1998a; Hall ; Gordon, 1998b; Hall ; Gordon, 1998c) and
COLER (Constantino-Gonzalez ; Suthers, 2000; ConstantinoGonzalez, et al., 2001), for teaching
on E-learning system. Currently, steps have been dedicated to combine these systems. Thus, an
integrated system is proposed, for the e-Learning systems to drive the connection and to
personalize instruction on the basis of adaptation to learner’s learning style. The increased
performance of learning can be brought by coupling the concept instruction and skill practice.
There is a necessity for research on the proper implications of thee current control on the
evolution of AI and the opportunity to wither the prosperity of human knowledge and aspects with
the monopoly of few entities. It is also important to emphasize furthermore study on the alternate
roles of teachers on new pedagogical methodologies for students, with a new set of attributes,
which centers creativity, innovation and imagination; the set of abilities and skills that are hardly
be ever simulated by the machines. An underway examination and probe in proposed solutions
stay critical to ensure that institutions are able to balance civilization, promote, and improve
wisdom and knowledge. On top of that, Artificial Intelligence is playing a crucial role in changing
the trends of education. One of the requirement of industrial revolution in the future, is the human
capital enhancements need to meet the skill and knowledge requisite. This greatly puts pressure
on the knowledge production and advance application of learning. To boot, alterations in learning
and reading habits of the upcoming generations need the support of the educators. To achieve new
pedagogical techniques, AI innovations such as chatbots, machine learning and predictive
analytics leads to the development of new tools for better learning domain. many sets of tasks that
are currently placed at the core of teaching practice in higher education will be replaced by AI
software based on complex algorithms designed by programmers that can transmit their own biases
or agendas in operating systems. The interplay of Artificial Intelligence with education is icing on
the cake to accomplish the cherished goal of reformed educational systems.